|UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
SCHOOL OF SOCIALWORK
|STEVEN SOIFER, M.S.W., Ph.D.
OFFICE HOURS: MON. 12-2, TUES. 4-6, BY APPT.
COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
I. COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course helps students build upon, expand, and refine their organizational development and capacity building skills. The course covers a number of themes, including small communities, factors leading to the health or decline of communities, community economic development (CED) strategies, community development corporations (CDC), advocacy and development organizing, various action programs, and social development strategies. Specific knowledge, skills, and values will be discussed in relation to these themes. Ethnically sensitive practice principles will be woven into class discussions on a regular basis.
Since this course builds upon the foundation knowledge and skills from various prerequisite introductory courses in the curriculum (SOWK 630, 631, 632, 635, and 636), this course assumes that the student is familiar with such relevant knowledge and skills as the nature of organization;; service delivery networks; community and power dynamics and structures,; advocacy and empowerment; small group dynamics; and staff, leaders, and member roles in task groups.
II. COURSE GOALS
To expose students to the concepts, knowledge, skills and values base of community based economic development. Major attention will be placed on looking at the community development corporation (CDC) model as the basis for the economic recovery and social-political revitalization of neighborhoods, communities, and cities.
III. COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. To evaluate the community as the basic unit of a local economy and as a complex social organism.
2. To compare and contrast the relevant models, methods, strategy and tactics of local economic development.
3. To dissect the history of community development and CDCs in the United States.
4. To critically analyze the field of community economic development and its future.
1. To assess CDCs as a vehicle for helping in the revitalization of a small community's economy and institutions.
2. To differentiate the social processes of participation (recruitment, involvement, communications, research and analysis, planning, decision-making and implementation) and the technical processes of community economic development (opportunity and project development, planning, implementation).
3. To identify the following development processes: capital formation, community financial institutions, housing, community land trusts, commercial revitalization, small business and enterprise development, worker-owned businesses, industrial/manufacturing development, job creation, and workforce development.
1. To appraise issues and people from diverse communities, such as communities based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, class, disability, and age.
2. To identify the social work goals of social justice and equity and to have hope that intervention strategies can be found to relieve human suffering, right social wrongs, empower people and improve societal conditions.
3. To locate social work's role as change agent in community and political arenas.
4. To enhance the student's own sense of empowerment.
IV. TEACHING METHODS:
Lecture small and large group discussion, field exercises, and films. These methods will help with the integration of classroom and field experience. All students are strongly encouraged to be active participants and learners in the classroom setting. Please bring questions and be prepared to ask them in class.
Medoff, P. & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of hope: The fall and rise of an urban neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.
National Congress for Community Economic Development. Tying itall together. Washington, D.C.:Author.
Pierce, N. & Steinbach, C. (1987). Corrective capitalism: Therise of America's CDC's. New York: Ford Foundation.
Rockefeller Foundation. Stories of renewal. New York: Author.
Sherraden, M.S. & Ninacs, W.A. (eds.) (1998). Community economicdeveloment and social work. New York: Haworth Press.
Whyte, W.F. & Whyte, K.K. (1988). Making Mondragon: The growth and dynamics of the worker cooperative complex. Ithaca: ILR Press.
Articles as assigned (see class outline). Many will be available at http://comm-org.wisc.edu
Blakely, E. (1994). Planning local economic development,2nd edition. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bruyn, S.T. & Meehan, J. (1987). Beyond the market and the state:New directions in community development. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Kretzmann, J.P. & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building communitiesfrom
the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community's
assets. Chicago: ACTA Publications.
VI. COURSE REQUIREMENTS:
1) Group Project(s) (Due December 6)
The class will break into two different groups and work on the following projects:
a) Alternative community finance institutions in Baltimore city, with a focus on a community development bank and/or community development credit union(s);
b) Community land trust in Baltimore city.
Each group, in consultation with the instructor, will develop a strategic working plan on these two projects. Each group will be responsible for a 25 - 50 page document and a class presentation on their work. These are to be done in APA style (properly referenced) and grammatically correct.
3) Reading Summaries (Due week reading assignment due)
Each person will submit summary analyses each time an reading assignment(s) are due in class. For articles, they are to be no more than one page; for books, no more than three pages.
The instructor will grade students in consultation with you. Grades will be weighted as follows: 20% class attendance, reading, and/or participation; 50% group project; and 30% final paper. Grades will be assigned according to the standard UMB system:
A=Excellent B=Good C=Fair D=Poor F-Failure
COURSE SCHEDULE AND READINGS
Session I. Course Overview
IntroductionsSession II. Community Economic Development: What is it?
Film: From the Bottom Up
A. Overview of Community Economic DevelopmentSession III. History of Community Development Corporations1. historyB. Differences between community economic development and economic development.
Readings:Pierce & Steinbach: Corrective capitalism. (On reserve)
A. Community development corporationsSession IV. Beyond the Market & the State: A Third Way?1. definitionB. Analysis of models and organizational structures for community based development
4. alternative models
5. open vs. closed organizations
C. Characteristics and elements of effective community development corporations
Readings:Stoecker, R. (1997). The CDC model of urban redevelopment: A critique and an alternative. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1), 1-22.
National Congress for Community Economic Development.(1995). Tying it all together. Washington, D.C.
Readings:Session V. Community Capacity BuildingMedoff & Sklar, Streets of Hope, Intro,Chaps. 1-4.
Readings:Session VI. CDC Case Examples
Medoff & Sklar, Streets of Hope, Chaps. 5-7.
Required Readings:Session VII. Housing & Land IssuesMedoff & Sklar, Streets of Hope, Chaps. 8 & 9.
Rockefeller Foundation: Stories of renewal.
Stoecker, R. (1995). Community organizing and community-based redevelopment in Cedar-Riverside & East Toledo: A comparative study. Journal of Community Practice, 2(3), 1-23.
A. Housing: stabilization, preservation, maintenance, production and management.Session VIII. Worker Coops & ESOPS: Overview
B. Alternative housing strategies1. land banksC. Overcoming issues and barriers to safe, affordable housing.
2. land trusts
3. trust funds
5. employee assisted housing1. economic: affordability, credit, down payment, financing.Readings:
2. quality: poor housing stock, habitabilty
3. market: turnover, availability, real estate practices, marketability.
4. ownership: rental vs. ownership, resident control
Sherraden & Ninacs, CED & Social Work, pp. 1-61, 125-151.
Required Readings:Session IX. Worker Cooperatives & ESOPS: Case Examples
Soifer, S.D. & Resnick, H. (1993). Prospects for socialwork cooperatives in the 1990s. Administrationand Social Work, 17(3), pp. 99-116.
Whyte & Whyte, Making Mondragon, Chaps. 1-10.
Required Readings:Session X. Community Finance Institutions
Whyte & Whyte, Making Mondragon, Chaps. 11-17.
A. capital issuesSession XI. Consumer Cooperatives
B. community loan/revolving loan, micro loan funds
C. community development credit unions
D. community development banks
E. Community Reinvestment Act
Film: No Loans Today
Whyte & Whyte, Making Mondragon, Chaps. 18-20.
Required Readings:Session XII. Job Creation Workforce Development & Welfare to Work
Selected articles from Cooperative America. (To be handed out).
(Tentative guest speaker)Session XIII. Economic Development: Small Business, Commercial,Industry and Manufacturing
A. People vs. place developments: jobs for people or people for jobs.
B. Job creation and increasing employment opportunities.1. targeting and capturing local jobsRequired Readings:
2. self-employment initiatives
3. community level job creation and retention
4. job training and placement
5. linking job training to creating and securing jobs
6. linking residents to non-local employment opportunities
7. issues of capacity, training, access and discrimination.
Sherraden & Ninacs. CED & Social Work, pp. 63-123.
(Tentative guest speaker)Session XIV. Social Development
A. Challenges and barriers to small business and enterprise development in low/moderate income communities1. identifying entrepreneursB. Strategies and tools for local small scale business and enterprise development and expansion
2. access to capital and credit for start-up and expansion
3. access to support and assistance
1. business assistance and recruitment centers
2. business incubators
3. seed capital funds
4. community based enterprise development
5. entrepreneurial development
6. peer lending
7. home grown economies
8. youth enterprise development
C. Overview of commercial revitalization, business, industrial and manufacturing development and job creation.
D. Issues in Industry and Manufacturing
1. people vs. place development
2. subsidy vs. upgrading the workforce
Required Readings:Fellin, P. (1998). Development of capital in poor, inner-city neighborhoods. Journal of Community Practice, 5, (3), 87-98.REFLECTION PAPER DUE!
Suggs, R.E.(1995). Bringing small business development to urban neighborhoods. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 30, (2), 487-506.
A. Social development conceptsSession XV. Class Evaluation/Party
B. Social development paradigms
C. Examples of social development
FINAL PAPERS DUE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Film: Community - Bangladesh
Required Readings:McDevitt, S. (1997). Social work in community development: A cross national comparison. CSWE APM, Chicago.
Midgley, J. & Livermore, M. (1997). Social capital and localeconomic development: Implications for community social work practice. CSWE APM, Chicago.
Adams, B. Building healthy communities. (1995). Leadership Collaboration Series of The Pew Partnership for Civic Change. Winter.
Adams, F. & Ellerman, D. (1989). Your own boss: Democratic worker ownership. Social Policy, 19(3), 12-18.
Adams, F., Gordon, F., & Shirey, R. (1991). Cooperative home care associates: From working poor to working class through job ownership. Boston: ICA Group.
Adams, F. T. & Hansen, G.B. (1992). Putting democracy to work: A practical guide for starting and managing worker-owned businesses. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Adams, F. & Shirey, R. (1993). The workers' owned sewing company: Making the eagle fly Friday. Boston: The ICA Group.
Ahlbrandt, R. S. (1984). Neighborhoods, people and community. New York: Plenum Press.
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Amoco Foundation. (1991, October). Rebuilding economies through neighborhood job creation: Denver, Atlanta and Chicago. Amoco Fund for Neighborhood Economies.
Berndt, H. E. (1977). New rulers in the ghetto: The community development corporation and urban poverty. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Biddle, W. W. & Biddle, L. J. (1965). The community development process: The rediscovery of local initiative. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Blakely, E. J. (Ed.) (1979). Community development research: Concepts, issues, and strategies. New York: Human Sciences Press.
Blakely, E. J. (1994). Planning local economic development, 2nd edition. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Blakely, E. J. & Aparicio, A. (1990). Balancing social and economic objectives: The case of California's community development corporations. Journal of the Community Development Society, 21( ), 115-128.
Boothroyd, P. & Craig, D.H. (1993). Community economic development: 3 approaches. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 12( ), 230-240.
Bratt, R. (1994). From housing development to neighborhood revitalization: The saga of a Boston CDC. Paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.
Bruyn, S. T. & Meehan, J. (1987). Beyond the market and the state: New directions in community development. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Building strong communities: Strategies for urban change. Conference report. Sponsored by the Annie E. Casey, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. Cleveland, OH, May 13-15, 1992.
Burwell, N. Y. (1995). Lawrence Oxley and locality development: Black self-help in North Carolina 1925-1928. Journal of Community Practice, 2(4), 49-69.
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Cohen, E., Ooms, T. & Hutchins, J. (1995). Comprehensive community-building initiatives: A strategy to strengthen family capital. A Family Impact Seminar (FIS) Background Briefing Report, December.
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Comprehensive approaches for children and families: A philanthropic perspective. Grantmakers for Children, Youth and Families, The Council on Foundations, June, 1992.
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Daniels, B. & Tilly,, C. (1985). Community economic development: 7 guiding principles. Resources for Community-Based Economic Development, (3), 11.
Davis, J. e. (1991). Contested ground: Collective action and the urban neighborhood. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
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Dreier, P. (1991, November/December). Redlining cities: How banks color community development. Challenge: The Magazine of Economic Affairs, 15-23.
Dreier, P. (1993). Community empowerment strategies: The experience of community-based problem-solving in America' urban neighborhoods - Recommendations for federal policy. Los Angeles:International and Public Affairs Center, Occidental College.
Dunst, C. (1995). Key characteristics and features of community -based family support programs. A Commissioned paper of the Family Resource Coalition Best Practices Project.
Edwards, E. D. & Edwards, M. E. (1995). Community development with Native Americans. In F. G. Rivera and J. L. Erlich Community organizing in a diverse society (pp. 25-42). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
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Eisen, A. (1992). A report on foundations' support for comprehensive neighborhood -based community empowerment initiatives. New York(?): East Bay Funders, The Ford Foundation, The New York Community Trust, The Piton Foundation, and the Riley Foundation.
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