SWOA 704


FALL 1999




Community organizing is a means of bringing people together to address problematic social conditions. As a purposeful collective effort, organizing requires sound analytical, political, and interactional skills. An important aspect of those skills for professional organizers involves a continuous pattern of systematic planning, "doing", reflecting again (theorizing) and acting strategically to build a group that can achieve its aims.

Community organization is rooted in the reform tradition of professional social work and such values as self-determination, self-sufficiency, empowerment, and social justice. Therefore this course is particularly relevant to direct practice with and advocacy for disempowered groups in the society, such as ethnic and racial minorities, low income persons, women, the aged and the disabled.

The methods course in community organization is aimed at students who seek to expand and refine their skills in organization-building and collective action. It builds on foundation knowledge and skills from the prerequisite introductory level practice courses in the curriculum.

Students enrolled in this course should have completed all of the introductory (foundation year) practice courses and the first year practicum or their equivalents. Therefore this course assumes familiarity with such relevant skills and knowledge as: the nature of organizations, service delivery networks, community structures and dynamics, power structure and dynamics, empowerment, advocacy, small group dynamics and staff, leader and member roles in work with task groups.


The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the theory and practice of community organizing in the United States.



1. to illustrate the historical knowledge base of CO practice;

2. derive a conceptual framework for practice & analyze issues like organizers;

3. to compare & contrast the major tasks, processes, models, and technologies of organizing;

4. to determine the main issues in working directly with individuals and groups whose social class, race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, and status are both similar to and different from the worker's;

5. to calculate the worker's role with disempowered groups, and with the nature of combating institutional manifestations of social oppression.

B. Skills

1. to use one's self differentially (e.g. enabler, organizer, leader, researcher, planner, developer, advocate, strategizer, broker, negotiator) as required in the complex role of the organizer as change agent;

2. to sharpen analytical, political, and interactional skills for community organizing;

3. to assess the differential potential and requirements for building and sustaining a collective effort to address a problematic social conditions;

4. to apply different approaches to organizing as necessary according to the variables and givens of the situation, such as organizational, political, and community resources and skills;

5. to work effectively with constituencies whose backgrounds and experiences differ widely from the organizer's.

6. to productively employ a community micro-analysis and/or effectively utilize a community power analysis.

C. Attitudes

1. to appraise for the developmental processes involved in community organizing;

2. to clarify the values of self-determination, empowerment, and social justice;

3. to develop with one's own ethical and political beliefs;

4. to appreciate differences in values, norms, and attitudes of individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds and experiences;

5. to understand the role of spontaneity in CO practice;

6. to identify one's limitations in skills and knowledge and to seek appropriate assistance.


Lecture, small and large group discussion, role playing, experiential exercises, and films. These methods will help with the integration of classroom and field experience. All students are strongly encouraged to be active participants and learners in the classroom setting. Please bring questions and be prepared to ask them in class.


Alinsky, S. (1972). Rules for radicals. New York: Random House.

Bobo, K., Kendall, J. & Max, S. (1991). Organizing for social change: A manual for activists in the 1990s. Midwest Academy: Cabin John, MD. Seven Locks Press.

Fisher, R. (1994). Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Twayne.

Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In. New York: Penguin.

McDougall, H. (1993). Black Baltimore: A New Theory of Community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Rogers, M.B. (1990). Cold Anger: A Story of Faith and Power Politics. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press.

Various articles as assigned.


Austin, Michael J. and Jane Isaacs Lowe (eds.). CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN COMMUNITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1994.

Betten, Neil and Michael J., Austin, et. al. THE ROOTS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZING: 1917-1939. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990.


Brager, George, Harry Specht, and James Torczyner. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING. New York, Columbia University Press, 1973, 1987.

Burghardt, Steve. THE OTHER SIDE OF ORGANIZING. Cambridge, Schenkman Publishing Company, 1982.

Delgado, Gary. ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT: THE ROOTS AND GROWTH OF ACORN. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1986.

Delgado, Gary. BEYOND THE POLITICS OF PLACE: NEW DIRECTIONS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN THE 1990's. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 1994.

Ewalt, Patricia L., Edith M. Freeman, and Dennis L. Poole (eds,) COMMUNITY BUILDING: RENEWAL, WELL-BEING, AND SHARED RESPONSIBILITY. Washngton D.C., NASW Press, 1998

Fisher, Roger and William Ury. GETTING TO YES: NEGOTIATING AGREMENT WITHOUT GIVING IN. New York, Penguin Books, 1981, 1991 (revised)

Hardcastle, David A., Stanley Wenocur, and Patricia Powers. COMMUNITY PRACTICE: THEORIES AND SKILLS FOR SOCIAL WORKERS. NY: Oxford Un., 1996.

Kahn, Si. ORGANIZING. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982. (Revised edition), NASW, 1991.

Kretzman, John P. and John L. McKnight. BUILDING COMMUNITIES FROM . NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Rivera, Felix F. and John Erlich. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY. (2nd. ed.) Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.

Rothman, Jack, John E. Tropman, and John L. Erlich (eds).. STRATEGIES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION. (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Peacock Press, 1995.

Rubin, Herbert and Irene Rubin. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT. Columbus, OH: Merril Publishing Company, 1986.

Simon, Barbara Levy. THE EMPOWERMENT TRADITION IN AMERICAN SOCIAL WORK: A HISTORY. NY: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Staples, Lee. ROOTS TO POWER: A MANUAL FOR GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING. New York, Praeger Publishing, 1984.

Tropman, John E., John L. Erlich, and Jack Rothman (eds.). TACTICS AND TECHNIQUES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, 5th ed., Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press, 1995

(Due Session 3)

Please write up a 3 page description of your "political" self. What are your earliest memories of politics? How have you been involved politically, if at all? Is so, why? If not, why not?


Critical Thinking

Professional practice requires the ability to formulate critical questions about one's experiences and reading; to recognize information lacks and identify the information needed to solve a problem; to make keen observations of behavior and events; to process and analyze data in order to make effective decisions and chart a course of action; and to evaluate the latter. These are all part of the process of critical thinking.

Critical thinking demands that each individual take a mentally active stance towards one's intellectual and experiential tasks. In that sense we are all continuous learners. Specifically in relation to this course, it also means that students must take responsibility for their own learning.

Students are expected to engage intellectually with the course reading; to attend classes and participate actively in class discussions, exercises, and projects; to question and analyze their own and other's assumptions and viewpoints; to take initiative in all aspects of the progress of the course.


The literature pertinent to the field of community organization extends well beyond social work texts and journals. The long bibliography attached to the syllabus is intended to serve the student beyond the demands of the course itself.

A complete reference for any book in the readings section can be found in the BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES section of the syllabus. Required Readings are generally available at the Health Sciences Library (HSL) and in some cases at the Reading Room of the School of Social Work.



(Due Session 3)

Please write up a 3 page description of your "political" self. What are your earliest memories of politics? How have you been involved politically, if at all? If so, why? If not, why not?



(Due Session 5)

Using the organizer's exercise at the back of Warren and Warren's "How to Diagnose a Neighborhood" article, choose a well defined small neighborhood area in Baltimore in which you do not live and do a micro analysis of it. Drive or walk around, and using the chart as framework, take notes. Please write up a 5 page description of the neighborhood, noting as many factors as you can about it. Include a map of the area, too. (Note: If you have already done an assignment like this, please see the instructor.)


(Due Session 3, 8, Last class)

Each person, either individually or in a small group, will design a community organizing project, which may relate to your field placement. They should be 15-30 pages (depending on whether you work alone or in a group), incorporate at least 15 different readings, and be done in APA style. By Session 3, I want to see a 1 page description of your proposed project. By Session 8, I want to see a detailed (2-4 pages) outline of the proposed project, including topic, potential steps, and possible references for it. Consult the Midwest Academy Strategy Chart framework or Nicholas et al. Macro practice framework (see me) for developing your proposal.


(As need be)

If I feel that students are not engaging class reading materials, I will administer pop quizzes.


Instructor will grade students in consultation with students. Grades will be weighted as follows: 10% class attendance, reading, and participation; 10% political autobiography, 15% neighborhood microanalysis, 15% pop quizzes, and 50% the community organizing project. Grades will be assigned according to the standard UMB system;





F= Failure



Introductions and course overview

Film: From the Bottom Up

Key question(s):

(1) Why are you interested in community organizing?

(2) What is civic culture, what is politics, and how does politics affect your life?

(3) Why organize anyway?

Required Reading:



History of and prospects for community organizing in the U.S.

Ethical considerations

Political considerations

Key question(s):

(1) What are some of the "contradictions in social relations" that social workers face in their daily lives and professional practice now and in the past?

(2) How do these bear on the history of community organizing in and out of the social work profession?

(3) How is your own life affected by "contradictions in social relations"?

(4) What is the historical role of CO practice in the field of social work?

Required Reading:

Fisher, Let the People Decide, Intro., Chs. 1-2 (pp. 1-66).

Warren & Warren, How to Diagnose a Neigborhood, In Cox et al (eds.). Tactics and techniques of community practice, (pp. 27-40).

Wenocur, Stanley. "The Case for Grassroots Community Organization," in CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK, ed. by Pruger and Gambrill, Rockleigh, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 1992.

Wenocur, Stanley and Steven Soifer. "Prospects for Community Organization in the 21st Century" , in SOCIAL WORK IN THE 21ST CENTURY, ed. by Michael Reisch and Eileen Gambrill. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1997 (also original draft is in LRC)


Betten and Austin, selected chapters as interested

Checkoway, Barry. "Core Concepts for Community Change". JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, VOL. 4 (1), 1997


Fisher, R. selected chapters as interested.

Fisher, Robert and Howard J. Karger, SOCIAL WORK AND COMMUNITY IN A PRIVATE WORLD. NY: Longman, 1997., Chapters 1 and 2

Hanna and Robinson, Chapter 1 (including endnotes): History and Philosophy of Social Change Strategies.


See especially articles by:

Maurice J. Moreau. "Empowerment through Advocacy and Consciousness-Raising: Implications of a Structural Approach to Social Work;

Linda Cherrey Reeser and Leslie Leighninger. "Back to Our Roots: Towards a Specialization in Social Justice."

Mondros and Wilson. Chapters 1 and 2.

Reisch, Michael and Stanley Wenocur. "The Future of Community Organization in Social Work: Social Activism and the Politics of Profession Building," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW, 60 (1), March, 1992.

Riessman, Frank and S. M. Miller. "Social Change Versus the Psychiatric World View," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, 34 (1).


History of community organizing in the U.S., Part II.

Key questions:

(1) What kinds of historical trends have affected community organization practice since its inception?

Required Reading

Fisher, Chs. 4-7 (pp. 98-233)


Theories for CO practice

Contingencies and ideologies

Power as a relational concept

Self interest


Key question(s):

(1) Why do people get involved in community organizing efforts?

(2) What is the role of ideology in CO?

(3) What does the concept of power mean and how does it come into play in CO practice?

Required Reading

Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, prologue, pp. 3-97.


Bachrach, Peter and Morton S. Baratz. "Two Faces of Power," AMERICAN POLICY SCIENCE REVIEW. December, 1962, pp. 947-952.

Berger, Peter L. and Richard John Neuhaus. TO EMPOWER PEOPLE: THE ROLE OF MEDIATING STRUCTURES IN PUBLIC POLICY. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1977.

Blau, Peter M. POWER AND EXCHANGE IN SOCIAL LIFE. Ch. 5, "Differentiation of Power."

Bachrach, Perter and Morton S. Baratz. POWER AND POVERTY: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Ch. 3, "Key Concepts: Decisions and Non-decisions," and Ch. 4, "A Model of the Political Process."

Domhoff, G. William. THE POWER ELITE AND THE STATE: HOW POLICY IS MADE IN AMERICA. NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1990.

Douglas, Robert and Mike Powell. "Mayor Schafer's Shadow Government," BALTIMORE MAGAZINE. Vol. 73 (4), April, 1980, pp. 68-75, 112-116. (RR)

Gamson, William. THE STRATEGY OF SOCIAL PROTEST. 1975, 1990.

Handler, Joel F. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND THE LEGAL SYSTEM: A THEORY OF LAW REFORM AND SOCIAL CHANGE. Ch. 1, "A Theoretical Perspective," Ch. 6, "Social Change and Law Reform."

Mao-Tse-Tung. "On Practice," in FIVE ESSAYS ON PHILOSOPHY. Foreign Language Press, Peking, 1977, pp. 1-22 (RR).

Miller, Jean Baker. "Women and Power," SOCIAL POLICY. 13 (4), Spring, 1983.

Pecukonis, Edward and Stanley Wenocur. "Perceptions of Self and Collective Efficacy in Community Organization Theory and Practice," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, 1 (2), 5-22, 1994.

Perrucci, Robert and Harry R. Potter (eds.), NETWORKS OF POWER: ORGANIZATIONAL ACTORS AT NATIONAL, CORPORATE AND COMMUNITY LEVELS. Hawthorne: NY, Aldine de Gruyter, 1989.


Silver, Michael. "Social Exchange," and "Social Construction of Reality," pp. 26-61, in SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE ORGANIZING TECHNOLOGY (Baltimore, SSW & CP, UMAB, 1980 (HS/RR).

Solomon, Barbara Bryant. BLACK EMPOWERMENT. Ch. 1 "Empowerment"; Ch. 2, "Black Communities: Myth or Reality?"

Tjerandsen, Carl. EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP: A FOUNDATION'S EXPERIENCE. Emil Schwarzhaupt Foundation, 1980, especially Ch. 9, "What Was Learned."


Community organizing goals

Roles of the organizer

Community power analysis

Film or game simulation

Key question(s):

(1) What are the different goals and roles of the community organizer?

(2) How are these determined?

(3) How do these fit with professional social work practice?

(4) Is there any relationship between goals and roles?

Required Reading

Rogers. COLD ANGER, Intro., Prologue, Chs. 1-10 (pp. 1-101)

Neighborhood Microanalysis or community power analysis due


Blum, Arthur, Magdalena Miranda, and Maurice Meyer. "Goals and Means for Social Change," in John Turner (ed.), NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. NASW, 1968.

Hanna and Robinson. 'Introduction"; Chapter 2, "Matrices of Change: A Comparison of Traditional, Direct-Action, and Transformative Strategies


Models of community organization

Key question(s):

(1) How do you decide what model of CO to use?

(2) What variables affect your choice?

(3) What are the commonalities and differences among models?

Required Reading

Joseph, B., Mizrahi, T., Peterson, J. and Sugarman, F. (1989, March). Women's perspectives on community organizing: A feminist synthesis of theory and practice. Paper presented.

Rothman, Jack, (1995). "Approaches to Community Intervention" (on reserve), also in Rothman, Erlich and Tropman (eds.) STRATEGIES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, 5th Edition. Itasia: F.E. Prentice, (pp. 26-63).



Biddle, William W. and Loureide J. Biddle. THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: A CASEBOOK. 1974.


Ecklein, Joan and Armand A. Lauffer. COMMUNITY ORGANIZERS AND SOCIAL PLANNERS. 2nd edition, 1984.

Elphick, Chris. "Community Arts and Community Development: Socio-Cultural Animation," in Paul Henderson, David Jones, and David N. Thomas (eds.), THE BOUNDARIES OF COMMUNITY CHANGE. London: Allen and Unwin, 1980.

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 3, Numbers 3/4, 1996 is devoted to conceptual models of commmunity practice. See especially Cheryl Hyde's article, "A Feminist Response to Rothman's 'The Interweaving of Community Intervention approaches'".

Kretzman, John P. and John L. McKnight. BUILDING COMMUNITIES FROM THE INSIDE OUT: A PATH TOWARD FINDING AND MOBILIZING A COMMUNITY'S ASSETS. Evanston, IL: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, 1993.

Krumholz, Norman and John Forester. MAKING EQUITY PLANNING WORK. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.


Lauffer, Armand. "Community Self-Help as Strategy and Outcome: The Examination of an Israeli Experience," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 43-56, 1994.

Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 9 and 10.

Morrissey, Megan H. "The Downtown Advocate Center: A Case Study of a Welfare Rights Organization," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW. Vol. 64 (2), June, 1990, pp. 189-207.

Pruger, Robert and Harry Specht. "Assessing Theoretical Models of Community Organization Practice: Alinsky as a Case in Point," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW. June, 1969, pp.123-135.


Models of community organization (cont'd)

More on the IAF approach

Transformative approaches

Key question(s):

(1) What's the difference between community development, social planning, and social action?

(2) What's the difference between Direct-Action and Transformative models of social change?

Required Reading


Bradshaw, Catherine, Steven Soifer and Lorriane Gutierrez. "Toward a Hybrid Model for Effective Organizing in Communities of Color," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 25-42, 1994.

Rogers. COLD ANGER, Chapters 11-16, Epilogue (pp. 105-199).

Williams, James, "Alinsky Discovered Organizing (Like Columbus Discovered America), in THIRD FORCE, July/August 1996 (LRC)

Film: Bill Moyer Interview with Ernesto Cortez


Adams, Frank, with Myles Horton. UNEARTHING SEEDS OF FIRE: THE IDEA OF THE HIGHLANDER. Winston-Salem, NC: Blair Publishing, 1975.

Delgado, Gary. ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT; THE ROOTS AND GROWTH OF ACORN, Philadelphia, Temple Un. Press, 1986.

Robinson, Buddy and Mark G. Hanna, "Lessons for Academics from Grassroots Community Organizing: A Case Study - The Industrial Areaas Foundation". JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 1 (4), pp. 63-94, 1994

SOCIAL POLICY. Winter, 1991. "Building Movements, Educating Citizen: Myles Horton and the Highlander Folk School."


Wenocur, Stanley. "The Social Welfare Workers Movement: A Case Study of New Left Thought in Practice," JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL WELFARE. Fall, 1975. (RR).


Nuts and bolts of organzing:

One on one meetings and door-knocking

Role plays

Key question(s):

(1) What do we mean by 'self interest' in organizing, and how do you identify it?

(2) How do you successfully organize a neighborhood?

Required Reading

Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, pp. 98-196.

Staples, Lee. "Can't Ya Hear Me Knockin'?", ROOTS TO POWER. Ch. 2.



Alexander, Chauncey and Charles McCann. "The Concept of Representativeness in Community Organization," SOCIAL WORK. January, 1956, pp. 48-55.

Bailis, Lawrence N. BREAD OR JUSTICE. Ch.3, "Boston Model for Grassroots Organizing."

Brown, Michael. "How to Recruit People to Your Organization," Cambridge, MA, 1994.

Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch. 2, "Know Yourself: A Key to Better Organizing."

Haggstrom, Warren C. "The Tactics of Organization Building," in Cox et. al. (eds.), STRATEGIES OF CO. (1979 edition).

Henderson, Paul and David N. Thomas. SKILLS IN NEIGHBORHOOD WORK. Ch. 1 - 5.

Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 1 , 2, and 3.


Silver, Michael. "Canvassers Doorknocking Technology," (unpublished, 1979). (RR).

Thomas, David N. ORGANIZING FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. Ch. 4, "Some Opening Moves in Neighborhood Work," pp. 68-88.

Wellstone, Paul D. HOW THE RURAL POOR GOT POWER. University of Mass., 1978.

Zurcher, Louis A. Jr. "Stages of Development of Neighborhood Action Groups: The Topeka Example," in Irving A. Spergel (ed.), COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION: STUDIES IN CONSTRAINT. 1972.




Doorknocking (cont'd)

Exercise in community (tentative)

Key question(s):

(1) What is an "issue"? How do you find a "good" issue?

Required Reading

Bobo. Kendall. and Max. Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 1-11, pp. 3-93.


Meetings, structures, and leadership development

Key question(s):

(1) Once you have begun to organize people, how do you actually build the organization?

(2) What is meant by the idea of leadership and how do you "develop" it?

(3) What's the role of "actions" in building your org'n?

Required Reading

Bobo, Kendall and Max, Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 12-19 (pp. 86-174).


Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch.3, "Building and Maintaining an Organization."

COMMUNITY JOBS. "3 Perspectives: The Reasons for High Staff Turnover," June, 1981. (LRC)


Kahn, Si. "Leadership: Realizing Concepts Through Creative Process", JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 4 (1), 1997


Mondros and Wilson. ORGANIZING FOR POWER AND EMPOWERMENT. Chapter 4, "Maintaining and Deepening Member Participation".

Mondros, Jacqueline B. and Scott M. Wilson. "Building High Access Community Organizations: Structures as Strategy," in Mizrahi and Morrison, 1993.

Wilson, James Q. POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS. Ch. 3, "Organizational Maintenance and Incentives," and Ch. 4, "Social Structure and Organizations."


Strategies, tactics, campaigns

Simulation exercise

Key question(s):

(1) How do you choose strategies and tactics? What are the factors you should consider?

Required Reading

Bobo, Kendall, and Max. Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 20-26, pp. 176-243.


Bailis, Lawrence. BREAD OR JUSTICE. Ch. 9, "Toward a Theory of Social Protest."

Beckhard, Richard. "The Confrontation Meeting," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969, 2nd edition.

Benne, Kenneth E. and Max Birnbaum. "Principles of Changing," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969, 2nd edition.

Brager and Holloway. CHANGING HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS (Part II). "Initial Assessment," Ch. 5, 6 (also recommended pre-skimming Part I, Chs. 2, 3, and 4 for fuller development of force-field perspective.

Brager and Specht. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING. Part IV. "Influencing Targets: Tactics for Community Change," Chs. 12-16.

Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch. 6, "Marches and Demonstrations," Ch. 7, "Coalition Work."

Chin, Robert and Kenneth D. Benne. "General Strategies for Effecting Change in Human Systems," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969.

Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 6-8.


Warren, Roland L. "Types of Purposive Change at the Community Level," in Kramer and Specht (eds.), READINGS IN CO PRACTICE. 1969, 1st edition.

Walton, Richard E. "Two Strategies of Social Change and Their Dilemmas," in Kramer and Specht (eds.), READINGS IN CO PRACTICE. 1969; also in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. and in Cox et. al. (eds.), STRATEGIES OF CO. 1979, 3rd edition.

Wenocur, Stanley. "The Adaptability of Voluntary Organization: External Pressures and United Way Organizations," POLICY AND POLITICS. Vol. 3, June, 1975.


Diversity Issues in Community Organizing

Film: Salt of the Earth

Required Reading

McDougall, Harold A. BLACK BALTIMORE: A NEW THEORY OF COMMUNITY. Prologue, Chapters 1-5, (pp. 1-112)


Daley, John M. and Paul Wong. "Community Development with Emerging Ethnic Communities," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 9-24, 1994.

Ecklein, Joan. COMMUNITY ORGANIZERS. Ch. 4, "Organizing and Racism,"; Ch. 7, "Women and Organizing."

Foster, Madison. "Black Organizing: The Need for a Conceptual Model of the Ghetto," CATALYST. Vol. 1 (1), 1978.

Gaventa, J., B. Smith and A. Willingham (eds.). COMMUNITIES IN ECONOMIC CRISIS: APPALACHIA AND THE SOUTH. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990.

Grosser, Charles F. "Organizing in the White Community," SOCIAL WORK. Vol. 16 (3), July, 1971.

Gutierrez, Lorraine and Edith A. Lewis. "Community Organizing with Women of Color: A Feminist Approach," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (2), pp. 23-44, 1994.

Kurzman, Paul. "The Native-Settler Concept: Implications for Community Organization," SOCIAL WORK. Vol. 14 (3), July, 1969, pp. 55-64.

Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar. STREETS OF HOPE: THE FALL AND RISE OF AN URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD. Boston: South End Press, 1994.

Milio, Nancy. 9226 KERCHEVAL: THE STOREFRONT THAT WOULD NOT BURN. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1970.



Rivera, Felix G. and John L. Erlich. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1995. (Read selective articles based on interest).


Coalition building

Role Play

Key question(s):

(1) How is a coalition different from a grass roots social action group?

(2) What are the main ingredients for an effective coalition?

Required reading

McDougall, Black Baltimore, Chapters 6-9, pp. 113-211.

Mizrahi, Terry and Beth B. Rosenthal. "Managing Dynamic Tensions in Social Change Coalitions," in Mizrahi and Morrison, COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION: ADVANCES, TRENDS, AND EMERGING PRINCIPLES, 1993

Cohen, L., Baer, N. and Satterwhite, P . "Developing Effective Coalitions: An Eight-Step Guide", Spring 1994 ( LRC).


Roberts-DeGennaro, Maria, "Conceptual Framework of Coalitions in an Organizational Context. JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 4(1), 1997





Role play

Running effective meetings

Key question(s):

(1) When should you negotiate and when should you avoid negotiating?

(2) What do I do during negotiations?

(3) What are basic principles of good meetings?

Required Reading

Cook and Wenocur, "Bargaining and Negotiation" (class handout)

Fisher, Roger and William Ury. GETTING TO YES, Parts I & II, pp. 1-94.

Meeting Handouts


Technologies in starting and maintaining organizations:

Technical and legal matters



Key question(s):

(1) Does your organization need to be incorporated?

(2) How do I find financial support for the organization?

Required Reading

Fisher, Getting to Yes, Parts III-V, pp. 95-187.


Kiritz, Norton J. PROGRAM PLANNING AND PROPOSAL WRITING. Los Angeles, Grantsmanship Center, 1974, 1978.


Lauffer, Armand. GRANTSMANSHIP. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1977.



The state of CO in the 1990's

Guest speaker (tentative)

Class evaluation

Key question(s):

(1) Is CO today different from CO efforts in the past?

(2) What will be the effect of computer technologies on community organizing?

Required Reading




Adams, F. & M. Horton. (1975). Unearthing seeds of fire: The idea of highlander. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair Publisher.

Adams, B.D. (1987). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Boston: G.K. Hall.

Adamson, M. & Borgos, S. (1984). This mighty dream: Social protest movements in the United States. Boston: Routledge Kegan paul.

Adamson, N. & Briskin, L. (1989). Feminist organizing for change. New York: New York University.

Adamson, N., Briskin, L. & McPhail, M. (1988). Feminist organizing for change: The contemporary women's movement in Canada. Tornonto: Oxford.

Alexander, C. & McCann, C. (1956, January). The concept of representativeness in community organization. Social Work, New York: Vintage.

Alinsky, S.D. (1946). Reville for radicals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

______________. Rules for radicals. (1972). NY: Random House, First Vintage Books

Anner, J. (ed.). (1997). Beyond identity politics: Emerging social justice struggles in communities of color. Boston, South End Press.

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