|UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND||
|SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK||
Community organizing is a means of bringing people together to address problematic social conditions. As a purposeful collective effort, organizing requires sound analytical, political, and interactional skills. An important aspect of those skills for professional organizers involves a continuous pattern of systematic planning, "doing", reflecting again (theorizing) and acting strategically to build a group that can achieve its aims.
Community organization is rooted in the reform tradition of professional social work and such values as self-determination, self-sufficiency, empowerment, and social justice. Therefore this course is particularly relevant to direct practice with and advocacy for disempowered groups in the society, such as ethnic and racial minorities, low income persons, women, the aged and the disabled.
The methods course in community organization is aimed at students who seek to expand and refine their skills in organization-building and collective action. It builds on foundation knowledge and skills from the prerequisite introductory level practice courses in the curriculum.
Students enrolled in this course should have completed all of the introductory (foundation year) practice courses and the first year practicum or their equivalents. Therefore this course assumes familiarity with such relevant skills and knowledge as: the nature of organizations, service delivery networks, community structures and dynamics, power structure and dynamics, empowerment, advocacy, small group dynamics and staff, leader and member roles in work with task groups.
I. COURSE GOALS
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the theory and practice of community organizing in the United States.
II. COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. to illustrate the historical knowledge base of CO practice;
2. derive a conceptual framework for practice & analyze issues like organizers;
3. to compare & contrast the major tasks, processes, models, and technologies of organizing;
4. to determine the main issues in working directly with individuals and groups whose social class, race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, and status are both similar to and different from the worker's;
5. to calculate the worker's role with disempowered groups, and with the nature of combating institutional manifestations of social oppression.
1. to use one's self differentially (e.g. enabler, organizer, leader, researcher, planner, developer, advocate, strategizer, broker, negotiator) as required in the complex role of the organizer as change agent;
2. to sharpen analytical, political, and interactional skills for community organizing;
3. to assess the differential potential and requirements for building and sustaining a collective effort to address a problematic social conditions;
4. to apply different approaches to organizing as necessary according to the variables and givens of the situation, such as organizational, political, and community resources and skills;
5. to work effectively with constituencies whose backgrounds and experiences differ widely from the organizer's.
6. to productively employ a community micro-analysis and/or effectively utilize a community power analysis.
1. to appraise for the developmental processes involved in community organizing;
2. to clarify the values of self-determination, empowerment, and social justice;
3. to develop with one's own ethical and political beliefs;
4. to appreciate differences in values, norms, and attitudes of individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds and experiences;
5. to understand the role of spontaneity in CO practice;
6. to identify one's limitations in skills and knowledge and to seek appropriate assistance.
III. TEACHING METHODOLOGY
Lecture, small and large group discussion, role playing, experiential exercises, and films. These methods will help with the integration of classroom and field experience. All students are strongly encouraged to be active participants and learners in the classroom setting. Please bring questions and be prepared to ask them in class.
IV. REQUIRED TEXTS
Alinsky, S. (1972). Rules for radicals. New York: Random House.
Bobo, K., Kendall, J. & Max, S. (1991). Organizing for social change: A manual for activists in the 1990s. Midwest Academy: Cabin John, MD. Seven Locks Press.
Fisher, R. (1994). Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Twayne.
Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In. New York: Penguin.
McDougall, H. (1993). Black Baltimore: A New Theory of Community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Rogers, M.B. (1990). Cold Anger: A Story of Faith and Power Politics. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press.
Various articles as assigned.
Austin, Michael J. and Jane Isaacs Lowe (eds.). CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN COMMUNITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1994.
Betten, Neil and Michael J., Austin, et. al. THE ROOTS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZING: 1917-1939. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990.
Boyte, Harry C. COMMONWEALTH: A RETURN TO CITIZEN POLITICS. NY: Free Press, 1989.
Brager, George, Harry Specht, and James Torczyner. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING. New York, Columbia University Press, 1973, 1987.
Burghardt, Steve. THE OTHER SIDE OF ORGANIZING. Cambridge, Schenkman Publishing Company, 1982.
Delgado, Gary. ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT: THE ROOTS AND GROWTH OF ACORN. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1986.
Delgado, Gary. BEYOND THE POLITICS OF PLACE: NEW DIRECTIONS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN THE 1990's. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 1994.
Ewalt, Patricia L., Edith M. Freeman, and Dennis L. Poole (eds,) COMMUNITY BUILDING: RENEWAL, WELL-BEING, AND SHARED RESPONSIBILITY. Washngton D.C., NASW Press, 1998
Fisher, Roger and William Ury. GETTING TO YES: NEGOTIATING AGREMENT WITHOUT GIVING IN. New York, Penguin Books, 1981, 1991 (revised)
Hardcastle, David A., Stanley Wenocur, and Patricia Powers. COMMUNITY PRACTICE: THEORIES AND SKILLS FOR SOCIAL WORKERS. NY: Oxford Un., 1996.
Kahn, Si. ORGANIZING. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982. (Revised edition), NASW, 1991.
Kretzman, John P. and John L. McKnight. BUILDING COMMUNITIES FROM . NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Rivera, Felix F. and John Erlich. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY. (2nd. ed.) Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.
Rothman, Jack, John E. Tropman, and John L. Erlich (eds).. STRATEGIES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION. (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Peacock Press, 1995.
Rubin, Herbert and Irene Rubin. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT. Columbus, OH: Merril Publishing Company, 1986.
Simon, Barbara Levy. THE EMPOWERMENT TRADITION IN AMERICAN SOCIAL WORK: A HISTORY. NY: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Staples, Lee. ROOTS TO POWER: A MANUAL FOR GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING. New York, Praeger Publishing, 1984.
Tropman, John E., John L. Erlich, and Jack Rothman (eds.). TACTICS AND TECHNIQUES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, 5th ed., Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press, 1995
(Due Session 3)
Please write up a 3 page description of your "political" self. What are your earliest memories of politics? How have you been involved politically, if at all? Is so, why? If not, why not?
V. COURSE EXPECTATIONS
Professional practice requires the ability to formulate critical questions about one's experiences and reading; to recognize information lacks and identify the information needed to solve a problem; to make keen observations of behavior and events; to process and analyze data in order to make effective decisions and chart a course of action; and to evaluate the latter. These are all part of the process of critical thinking.
Critical thinking demands that each individual take a mentally active stance towards one's intellectual and experiential tasks. In that sense we are all continuous learners. Specifically in relation to this course, it also means that students must take responsibility for their own learning.
Students are expected to engage intellectually with the course reading; to attend classes and participate actively in class discussions, exercises, and projects; to question and analyze their own and other's assumptions and viewpoints; to take initiative in all aspects of the progress of the course.
The literature pertinent to the field of community organization extends well beyond social work texts and journals. The long bibliography attached to the syllabus is intended to serve the student beyond the demands of the course itself.
A complete reference for any book in the readings section can be found in the BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES section of the syllabus. Required Readings are generally available at the Health Sciences Library (HSL) and in some cases at the Reading Room of the School of Social Work.
VI. COURSE REQUIREMENTS
1. POLITICAL AUTOBIOGRAPHY
(Due Session 3)
Please write up a 3 page description of your "political" self. What are your earliest memories of politics? How have you been involved politically, if at all? If so, why? If not, why not?
2. NEIGHBORHOOD MICROANALYSIS OR COMMUNITY POWER ANALYSIS
(Due Session 5)
Using the organizer's exercise at the back of Warren and Warren's "How to Diagnose a Neighborhood" article, choose a well defined small neighborhood area in Baltimore in which you do not live and do a micro analysis of it. Drive or walk around, and using the chart as framework, take notes. Please write up a 5 page description of the neighborhood, noting as many factors as you can about it. Include a map of the area, too. (Note: If you have already done an assignment like this, please see the instructor.)
3. FINAL ASSIGNMENT: COMMUNITY ORGANIZING PROJECT
(Due Session 3, 8, Last class)
Each person, either individually or in a small group, will design a community organizing project, which may relate to your field placement. They should be 15-30 pages (depending on whether you work alone or in a group), incorporate at least 15 different readings, and be done in APA style. By Session 3, I want to see a 1 page description of your proposed project. By Session 8, I want to see a detailed (2-4 pages) outline of the proposed project, including topic, potential steps, and possible references for it. Consult the Midwest Academy Strategy Chart framework or Nicholas et al. Macro practice framework (see me) for developing your proposal.
4. POP QUIZZES
(As need be)
If I feel that students are not engaging class reading materials, I will administer pop quizzes.
Instructor will grade students in consultation with students. Grades will be weighted as follows: 10% class attendance, reading, and participation; 10% political autobiography, 15% neighborhood microanalysis, 15% pop quizzes, and 50% the community organizing project. Grades will be assigned according to the standard UMB system;
COURSE OUTLINE AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Introductions and course overview
Film: From the Bottom Up
(1) Why are you interested in community organizing?
(2) What is civic culture, what is politics, and how does politics affect your life?
(3) Why organize anyway?
History of and prospects for community organizing in the U.S.
(1) What are some of the "contradictions in social relations" that social workers face in their daily lives and professional practice now and in the past?
(2) How do these bear on the history of community organizing in and out of the social work profession?
(3) How is your own life affected by "contradictions in social relations"?
(4) What is the historical role of CO practice in the field of social work?
Fisher, Let the People Decide, Intro., Chs. 1-2 (pp. 1-66).
Warren & Warren, How to Diagnose a Neigborhood, In Cox et al (eds.). Tactics and techniques of community practice, (pp. 27-40).
Wenocur, Stanley. "The Case for Grassroots Community Organization," in CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK, ed. by Pruger and Gambrill, Rockleigh, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 1992.
Wenocur, Stanley and Steven Soifer. "Prospects for Community Organization in the 21st Century" , in SOCIAL WORK IN THE 21ST CENTURY, ed. by Michael Reisch and Eileen Gambrill. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1997 (also original draft is in LRC)
Betten and Austin, selected chapters as interested
Checkoway, Barry. "Core Concepts for Community Change". JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, VOL. 4 (1), 1997
Delgado, Gary. BEYOND THE POLITICS OF PLACE: NEW DIRECTIONS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN THE 1990'S. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 1994.
Fisher, R. selected chapters as interested.
Fisher, Robert and Howard J. Karger, SOCIAL WORK AND COMMUNITY IN A PRIVATE WORLD. NY: Longman, 1997., Chapters 1 and 2
Hanna and Robinson, Chapter 1 (including endnotes): History and Philosophy of Social Change Strategies.
JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL WELFARE, Vol. XVII (2), June 1990, SPECIAL ISSUE ON SOCIAL JUSTICE VALUES, AND SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE.
See especially articles by:
Maurice J. Moreau. "Empowerment through Advocacy and Consciousness-Raising: Implications of a Structural Approach to Social Work;
Linda Cherrey Reeser and Leslie Leighninger. "Back to Our Roots: Towards a Specialization in Social Justice."
Mondros and Wilson. Chapters 1 and 2.
Reisch, Michael and Stanley Wenocur. "The Future of Community Organization in Social Work: Social Activism and the Politics of Profession Building," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW, 60 (1), March, 1992.
Riessman, Frank and S. M. Miller. "Social Change Versus the Psychiatric World View," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, 34 (1).
History of community organizing in the U.S., Part II.
(1) What kinds of historical trends have affected community organization practice since its inception?
Fisher, Chs. 4-7 (pp. 98-233)
Theories for CO practice
Contingencies and ideologies
Power as a relational concept
(1) Why do people get involved in community organizing efforts?
(2) What is the role of ideology in CO?
(3) What does the concept of power mean and how does it come into play in CO practice?
Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, prologue, pp. 3-97.
Bachrach, Peter and Morton S. Baratz. "Two Faces of Power," AMERICAN POLICY SCIENCE REVIEW. December, 1962, pp. 947-952.
Berger, Peter L. and Richard John Neuhaus. TO EMPOWER PEOPLE: THE ROLE OF MEDIATING STRUCTURES IN PUBLIC POLICY. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1977.
Blau, Peter M. POWER AND EXCHANGE IN SOCIAL LIFE. Ch. 5, "Differentiation of Power."
Bachrach, Perter and Morton S. Baratz. POWER AND POVERTY: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Ch. 3, "Key Concepts: Decisions and Non-decisions," and Ch. 4, "A Model of the Political Process."
Domhoff, G. William. THE POWER ELITE AND THE STATE: HOW POLICY IS MADE IN AMERICA. NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1990.
Douglas, Robert and Mike Powell. "Mayor Schafer's Shadow Government," BALTIMORE MAGAZINE. Vol. 73 (4), April, 1980, pp. 68-75, 112-116. (RR)
Gamson, William. THE STRATEGY OF SOCIAL PROTEST. 1975, 1990.
Handler, Joel F. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND THE LEGAL SYSTEM: A THEORY OF LAW REFORM AND SOCIAL CHANGE. Ch. 1, "A Theoretical Perspective," Ch. 6, "Social Change and Law Reform."
Mao-Tse-Tung. "On Practice," in FIVE ESSAYS ON PHILOSOPHY. Foreign Language Press, Peking, 1977, pp. 1-22 (RR).
Miller, Jean Baker. "Women and Power," SOCIAL POLICY. 13 (4), Spring, 1983.
Pecukonis, Edward and Stanley Wenocur. "Perceptions of Self and Collective Efficacy in Community Organization Theory and Practice," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, 1 (2), 5-22, 1994.
Perrucci, Robert and Harry R. Potter (eds.), NETWORKS OF POWER: ORGANIZATIONAL ACTORS AT NATIONAL, CORPORATE AND COMMUNITY LEVELS. Hawthorne: NY, Aldine de Gruyter, 1989.
Russell, Daniel M. POLITICAL ORGANIZING IN GRASSROOTS POLITICS.
Silver, Michael. "Social Exchange," and "Social Construction of Reality," pp. 26-61, in SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE ORGANIZING TECHNOLOGY (Baltimore, SSW & CP, UMAB, 1980 (HS/RR).
Solomon, Barbara Bryant. BLACK EMPOWERMENT. Ch. 1 "Empowerment"; Ch. 2, "Black Communities: Myth or Reality?"
Tjerandsen, Carl. EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP: A FOUNDATION'S EXPERIENCE. Emil Schwarzhaupt Foundation, 1980, especially Ch. 9, "What Was Learned."
Community organizing goals
Roles of the organizer
Community power analysis
Film or game simulation
(1) What are the different goals and roles of the community organizer?
(2) How are these determined?
(3) How do these fit with professional social work practice?
(4) Is there any relationship between goals and roles?
Rogers. COLD ANGER, Intro., Prologue, Chs. 1-10 (pp. 1-101)
Neighborhood Microanalysis or community power analysis due
Blum, Arthur, Magdalena Miranda, and Maurice Meyer. "Goals and Means for Social Change," in John Turner (ed.), NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. NASW, 1968.
Hanna and Robinson. 'Introduction"; Chapter 2, "Matrices of Change: A Comparison of Traditional, Direct-Action, and Transformative Strategies
Models of community organization
(1) How do you decide what model of CO to use?
(2) What variables affect your choice?
(3) What are the commonalities and differences among models?
Joseph, B., Mizrahi, T., Peterson, J. and Sugarman, F. (1989, March). Women's perspectives on community organizing: A feminist synthesis of theory and practice. Paper presented.
Rothman, Jack, (1995). "Approaches to Community Intervention" (on reserve), also in Rothman, Erlich and Tropman (eds.) STRATEGIES OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, 5th Edition. Itasia: F.E. Prentice, (pp. 26-63).
Bailis, Lawrence Neil. BREAD OR JUSTICE? GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING IN THE WELFARE RIGHTS MOVEMENT. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1974.
Biddle, William W. and Loureide J. Biddle. THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: A CASEBOOK. 1974.
Delgado, Gary. ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT: THE ROOTS AND GROWTH OF ACORN. 1986.
Ecklein, Joan and Armand A. Lauffer. COMMUNITY ORGANIZERS AND SOCIAL PLANNERS. 2nd edition, 1984.
Elphick, Chris. "Community Arts and Community Development: Socio-Cultural Animation," in Paul Henderson, David Jones, and David N. Thomas (eds.), THE BOUNDARIES OF COMMUNITY CHANGE. London: Allen and Unwin, 1980.
JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 3, Numbers 3/4, 1996 is devoted to conceptual models of commmunity practice. See especially Cheryl Hyde's article, "A Feminist Response to Rothman's 'The Interweaving of Community Intervention approaches'".
Kretzman, John P. and John L. McKnight. BUILDING COMMUNITIES FROM THE INSIDE OUT: A PATH TOWARD FINDING AND MOBILIZING A COMMUNITY'S ASSETS. Evanston, IL: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, 1993.
Krumholz, Norman and John Forester. MAKING EQUITY PLANNING WORK. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
Lancourt, Joan E. CONFRONT OR CONCEDE: THE ALINSKY CITIZEN ACTION ORGANIZATIONS. 1979.
Lauffer, Armand. "Community Self-Help as Strategy and Outcome: The Examination of an Israeli Experience," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 43-56, 1994.
Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 9 and 10.
Morrissey, Megan H. "The Downtown Advocate Center: A Case Study of a Welfare Rights Organization," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW. Vol. 64 (2), June, 1990, pp. 189-207.
Pruger, Robert and Harry Specht. "Assessing Theoretical Models of Community Organization Practice: Alinsky as a Case in Point," SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW. June, 1969, pp.123-135.
Models of community organization (cont'd)
More on the IAF approach
(1) What's the difference between community development, social planning, and social action?
(2) What's the difference between Direct-Action and Transformative models of social change?
Alinsky. RULES FOR RADICALS
Bradshaw, Catherine, Steven Soifer and Lorriane Gutierrez. "Toward a Hybrid Model for Effective Organizing in Communities of Color," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 25-42, 1994.
Rogers. COLD ANGER, Chapters 11-16, Epilogue (pp. 105-199).
Williams, James, "Alinsky Discovered Organizing (Like Columbus Discovered America), in THIRD FORCE, July/August 1996 (LRC)
Film: Bill Moyer Interview with Ernesto Cortez
Adams, Frank, with Myles Horton. UNEARTHING SEEDS OF FIRE: THE IDEA OF THE HIGHLANDER. Winston-Salem, NC: Blair Publishing, 1975.
Delgado, Gary. ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT; THE ROOTS AND GROWTH OF ACORN, Philadelphia, Temple Un. Press, 1986.
Robinson, Buddy and Mark G. Hanna, "Lessons for Academics from Grassroots Community Organizing: A Case Study - The Industrial Areaas Foundation". JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 1 (4), pp. 63-94, 1994
SOCIAL POLICY. Winter, 1991. "Building Movements, Educating Citizen: Myles Horton and the Highlander Folk School."
Twelvetrees, Alan. ORGANIZING FOR NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS AND CITIZEN POWER ORGANIZATIONS. Adershot, England: Gower Publishing, 1989.
Wenocur, Stanley. "The Social Welfare Workers Movement: A Case Study of New Left Thought in Practice," JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL WELFARE. Fall, 1975. (RR).
Nuts and bolts of organzing:
One on one meetings and door-knocking
(1) What do we mean by 'self interest' in organizing, and how do you identify it?
(2) How do you successfully organize a neighborhood?
Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, pp. 98-196.
Staples, Lee. "Can't Ya Hear Me Knockin'?", ROOTS TO POWER. Ch. 2.
COMMUNITY ORGANIZING PAPER OUTLINE DUE
Alexander, Chauncey and Charles McCann. "The Concept of Representativeness in Community Organization," SOCIAL WORK. January, 1956, pp. 48-55.
Bailis, Lawrence N. BREAD OR JUSTICE. Ch.3, "Boston Model for Grassroots Organizing."
Brown, Michael. "How to Recruit People to Your Organization," Cambridge, MA, 1994.
Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch. 2, "Know Yourself: A Key to Better Organizing."
Haggstrom, Warren C. "The Tactics of Organization Building," in Cox et. al. (eds.), STRATEGIES OF CO. (1979 edition).
Henderson, Paul and David N. Thomas. SKILLS IN NEIGHBORHOOD WORK. Ch. 1 - 5.
Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 1 , 2, and 3.
Rubin and Rubin. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT. Ch. 3, 6-8.
Silver, Michael. "Canvassers Doorknocking Technology," (unpublished, 1979). (RR).
Thomas, David N. ORGANIZING FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. Ch. 4, "Some Opening Moves in Neighborhood Work," pp. 68-88.
Wellstone, Paul D. HOW THE RURAL POOR GOT POWER. University of Mass., 1978.
Zurcher, Louis A. Jr. "Stages of Development of Neighborhood Action Groups: The Topeka Example," in Irving A. Spergel (ed.), COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION: STUDIES IN CONSTRAINT. 1972.
Exercise in community (tentative)
(1) What is an "issue"? How do you find a "good" issue?
Bobo. Kendall. and Max. Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 1-11, pp. 3-93.
Meetings, structures, and leadership development
(1) Once you have begun to organize people, how do you actually build the organization?
(2) What is meant by the idea of leadership and how do you "develop" it?
(3) What's the role of "actions" in building your org'n?
Bobo, Kendall and Max, Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 12-19 (pp. 86-174).
Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch.3, "Building and Maintaining an Organization."
COMMUNITY JOBS. "3 Perspectives: The Reasons for High Staff Turnover," June, 1981. (LRC)
Freire, Paulo. PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED, 1974
Kahn, Si. "Leadership: Realizing Concepts Through Creative Process", JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 4 (1), 1997
Lakey, Berit, et. al. GRASSROOTS AND NONPROFIT LEADERSHIP: A GUIDE FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN CHANGING TIMES, 1995
Mondros and Wilson. ORGANIZING FOR POWER AND EMPOWERMENT. Chapter 4, "Maintaining and Deepening Member Participation".
Mondros, Jacqueline B. and Scott M. Wilson. "Building High Access Community Organizations: Structures as Strategy," in Mizrahi and Morrison, 1993.
Wilson, James Q. POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS. Ch. 3, "Organizational Maintenance and Incentives," and Ch. 4, "Social Structure and Organizations."
Strategies, tactics, campaigns
(1) How do you choose strategies and tactics? What are the factors you should consider?
Bobo, Kendall, and Max. Organizing for Social Change, Chapters 20-26, pp. 176-243.
Bailis, Lawrence. BREAD OR JUSTICE. Ch. 9, "Toward a Theory of Social Protest."
Beckhard, Richard. "The Confrontation Meeting," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969, 2nd edition.
Benne, Kenneth E. and Max Birnbaum. "Principles of Changing," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969, 2nd edition.
Brager and Holloway. CHANGING HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS (Part II). "Initial Assessment," Ch. 5, 6 (also recommended pre-skimming Part I, Chs. 2, 3, and 4 for fuller development of force-field perspective.
Brager and Specht. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING. Part IV. "Influencing Targets: Tactics for Community Change," Chs. 12-16.
Burghardt, Steve. ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY ACTION. Ch. 6, "Marches and Demonstrations," Ch. 7, "Coalition Work."
Chin, Robert and Kenneth D. Benne. "General Strategies for Effecting Change in Human Systems," in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. 1969.
Mondros and Wilson. Chs. 6-8.
Rubin and Rubin. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT. Chs. 9-12.
Warren, Roland L. "Types of Purposive Change at the Community Level," in Kramer and Specht (eds.), READINGS IN CO PRACTICE. 1969, 1st edition.
Walton, Richard E. "Two Strategies of Social Change and Their Dilemmas," in Kramer and Specht (eds.), READINGS IN CO PRACTICE. 1969; also in Bennis, Benne and Chin (eds.), THE PLANNING OF CHANGE. and in Cox et. al. (eds.), STRATEGIES OF CO. 1979, 3rd edition.
Wenocur, Stanley. "The Adaptability of Voluntary Organization: External Pressures and United Way Organizations," POLICY AND POLITICS. Vol. 3, June, 1975.
Diversity Issues in Community Organizing
Film: Salt of the Earth
McDougall, Harold A. BLACK BALTIMORE: A NEW THEORY OF COMMUNITY. Prologue, Chapters 1-5, (pp. 1-112)
Daley, John M. and Paul Wong. "Community Development with Emerging Ethnic Communities," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (1), pp. 9-24, 1994.
Ecklein, Joan. COMMUNITY ORGANIZERS. Ch. 4, "Organizing and Racism,"; Ch. 7, "Women and Organizing."
Foster, Madison. "Black Organizing: The Need for a Conceptual Model of the Ghetto," CATALYST. Vol. 1 (1), 1978.
Gaventa, J., B. Smith and A. Willingham (eds.). COMMUNITIES IN ECONOMIC CRISIS: APPALACHIA AND THE SOUTH. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990.
Grosser, Charles F. "Organizing in the White Community," SOCIAL WORK. Vol. 16 (3), July, 1971.
Gutierrez, Lorraine and Edith A. Lewis. "Community Organizing with Women of Color: A Feminist Approach," JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE. 1 (2), pp. 23-44, 1994.
Kurzman, Paul. "The Native-Settler Concept: Implications for Community Organization," SOCIAL WORK. Vol. 14 (3), July, 1969, pp. 55-64.
Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar. STREETS OF HOPE: THE FALL AND RISE OF AN URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD. Boston: South End Press, 1994.
Milio, Nancy. 9226 KERCHEVAL: THE STOREFRONT THAT WOULD NOT BURN. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1970.
N.O.W. GUIDELINES TO FEMINIST CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING. 1982. (LRC)
Pope, Jacqueline. BITING THE HAND THAT FEEDS THEM: ORGANIZING WOMEN AT THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL. NY: Praeger Publishing, 1989.
Rivera, Felix G. and John L. Erlich. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1995. (Read selective articles based on interest).
(1) How is a coalition different from a grass roots social action group?
(2) What are the main ingredients for an effective coalition?
McDougall, Black Baltimore, Chapters 6-9, pp. 113-211.
Mizrahi, Terry and Beth B. Rosenthal. "Managing Dynamic Tensions in Social Change Coalitions," in Mizrahi and Morrison, COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION: ADVANCES, TRENDS, AND EMERGING PRINCIPLES, 1993
Cohen, L., Baer, N. and Satterwhite, P . "Developing Effective Coalitions: An Eight-Step Guide", Spring 1994 ( LRC).
Roberts-DeGennaro, Maria, "Conceptual Framework of Coalitions in an Organizational Context. JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE, Vol. 4(1), 1997
Simmons, Louise B. ORGANIZING IN HARD TIMES: LABOR AND NEIGHBORHOODS IN HARTFORD. Philadelphia: Temple Un., 1996
Running effective meetings
(1) When should you negotiate and when should you avoid negotiating?
(2) What do I do during negotiations?
(3) What are basic principles of good meetings?
Cook and Wenocur, "Bargaining and Negotiation" (class handout)
Fisher, Roger and William Ury. GETTING TO YES, Parts I & II, pp. 1-94.
Technologies in starting and maintaining organizations:
Technical and legal matters
(1) Does your organization need to be incorporated?
(2) How do I find financial support for the organization?
Fisher, Getting to Yes, Parts III-V, pp. 95-187.
Kiritz, Norton J. PROGRAM PLANNING AND PROPOSAL WRITING. Los Angeles, Grantsmanship Center, 1974, 1978.
Klein, Kim. FUNDRAISING FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. CRG Press, 1985.
Lauffer, Armand. GRANTSMANSHIP. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1977.
Rubin and Rubin. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT. Chs. 13-17.
The state of CO in the 1990's
Guest speaker (tentative)
(1) Is CO today different from CO efforts in the past?
(2) What will be the effect of computer technologies on community organizing?
*FINAL PAPER DUE*
Adams, F. & M. Horton. (1975). Unearthing seeds of fire: The
idea of highlander. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair Publisher.
Adams, B.D. (1987). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Boston: G.K. Hall.
Adamson, M. & Borgos, S. (1984). This mighty dream: Social protest movements in the United States. Boston: Routledge Kegan paul.
Adamson, N. & Briskin, L. (1989). Feminist organizing for change. New York: New York University.
Adamson, N., Briskin, L. & McPhail, M. (1988). Feminist organizing for change: The contemporary women's movement in Canada. Tornonto: Oxford.
Alexander, C. & McCann, C. (1956, January). The concept of representativeness in community organization. Social Work, New York: Vintage.
Alinsky, S.D. (1946). Reville for radicals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
______________. Rules for radicals. (1972). NY: Random House, First Vintage Books
Anner, J. (ed.). (1997). Beyond identity politics: Emerging social justice struggles in communities of color. Boston, South End Press.
Ansara, M. (1975). The people first: An organizer's notebook. Working Papers for a Arkansas Institute for Organizing: Handbook.
Arkansas Institute for Social Justice. (1977). COMMUNITY ORGANIZING: HANDBOOK 2. 523 West 15th Street, Little Rock, AR. 72202.
Austin, M. J. and Lowe, J.I. (eds.), (1994). Controversial issues in communities and organizations. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bachman, S. (1984-85). Lawyers, law, and social change. Lawyers and Social Change. Vol. XIII:1, pp. 1-50.
Bachman, S. (1985). New York University review of law & social change.
Bachrach, P. & Baratz, M. (1970). Power & poeverty: Theory & Practice. NY: Oxford University Press.
Bailey, R. Jr. (1974). Radicals in urban politics: The Alinskey approach. University of Chicago Press.
Bailis, L. (1974). Bread or justice. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co.
Banfield, E.C. (1961). Political influence. NY: Free Press.
Beck, D. (September/October, 1998). Organizing today: Ten reasons to cheer! NIH Shelterforce Online. http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/101/beckwith.html.
Beckwith, D. (September/October, 1998). Organizing today: Ten reasons to cheer! Shelterforce Online, Http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/101/beckwith.html
Bennis, W.G., Benne, K.D. & Chin, R. (eds.) (1976). The planning of change. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 2nd edition, 1969; 3rd edition with Kenneth Corey.
Berger, P. (1976). Pyramids of sacrifice. NY: Anchor Books.
Berger, P. & Luckman, T. (1971). The social construction of reality. NY: Oxford Press.
Berger, P. & Neuhaus, R.J. (1977). To empower people: The role of mediating structures in public policy. Washington, D.C.: American Public Enterprise Institute.
Betten, N. & Austin, M.J. (1990). The roots of community organizing: 1917-1939. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Biddle, W. W. and Biddle, L.J. (1965). The community development process: The rediscovery of local initiative. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
___________________. (1968). Encouraging community development: A training guide for local workers. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Biklen, D.P. (1983). Community organizing: Theory and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Blakely, E. J. (ed.) (1979). Community development research: concept issues and strategies. NY: Human Sciences Press.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Blumenfeld, W.J. & Raymond, D. (1988). Looking at gay and lesbian life. New York: Philosophical Library.
Bobo, K., Kendall, J. & Max, S. (1991). Organizing for social change: A manual for activists in the 1990s. Midwest Academy, Cabin John, MD: Seven Locks Press.
Bookman, A. & Morgen, S. (1988). Women and the politics of empowerment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Booth, H., Max, S. & Boyte, H.C. (1986). Citizen action and the new populism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Boyte, H.C. (1979). A democratic awakening. Social Policy, 10 (2), 8-15.
Boyte, H.C. (1982). Neighborhood politics: The building blocks. Social Policy, 12 (3), 2 -3.
Boyte, H.C. (1980). The backyard revolution: Understanding the new citizen movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
_________________. (1984). Community is possible: Repairing American's roots. NY: Harper & Row.
----------------------------. (1989). Commomwealth: A return to citizen politics. NY: Free Press.
Braden, A. (1988, July/August). Lessons for the peace movement. Peace and Freedom, 11-13 22, 25-41.
Brager, C.A. & Purcell, F.P. (1967). Community action against poverty. New Haven: College University Press.
Brager, G. & Specht, H. Community organizing. NY: Columbia University Press, 1973; 1987 edition with James Torczyner.
Brager, G. & Holloway, S. (1978). Changing human service organizations. NY: Free Press.
Branch, T. (1988). Parting the waters: America in the King years 1954-1963. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Brandwein, R.A. (1981). Toward the feminization of community and organization practice. Social Development Issues, 5(3), 187-197.
Brazier, A. (1966). Black self-determination: The story of the Woodlawn organization. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Brecher, J. & Costello, T. (eds.). (1990). Building bridges: The emerging grassroots coalition of labor and community. New York City: Monthly Review Press.
Bricker-Jenkins, M. and N. Hooyman. (1986). Not for women only: Social work practice for a feminist future. Silver Spring, MD: NASW.
Brilliant, E. L. (1990). The United Way: Dilemmas of organized charity. NY: Columbia University Press.
Brody (1982). Problem solving: Concepts and methods for community organizations. New York: Human Sciences Press.
Brown, M.J. (1984). How to recruit people to your organization. Cambridge, MA: Michael J. Brown, (54-C Trowbridge St., 02138).
Bruyn, S.T. & Meehan, J. (1987). Beyond the market and the state: New directions in community development. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Burghardt, S. (1984). Towards a new conception of grassroots organizing. Social Development Issues, 8(3), 89-102.
Burghardt, S. (1982). The other side of organizing. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Company.
Burghardt, S. (1982). Organizing for community action. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Burns Hope, L. (1989). The legacy of community organizing: Lugenia Burns Hope and the neighborhood union. The Journal of Negro History, 69, 114-133.
Byrd, M. (1996). You will rebuild your ancient ruins: Religion, the IAF and community -based organizing in metropolitan Nashville. H-Urban Seminar on the History of Community Organizing and Community-Based Development. Vanderbilt University, Department of Religion. http://h-net2.msu.e m-org/byrd/iaf.html.
Campbell, M. (1979). Elements of a successful campaign. In The Institute for Social Justice, Actions and Campaigns: Community Organizing Handbook #3. Little Rock: Author, 3-5, 9-10.
Campbell, M. (1984). Action ideas. In L. Staples, Roots to power: A manual for grassroots organizing. New York: Praeger, 152-154.
Casper, B.M. and Wellstone, P.D. (1981). Powerline: The first battle of American's war. Amherst: University of MA Press.
Chavez, C. (1966). The organizer's tale. In S. Lynd (ed.) American labor radicalism. New York: Wiley, 138-147.
Clapp, J.D. (1995). Organizing inner city neighborhoods to reduce drug and alcohol problems. Practice, 2(1), 43-60.
Clifton, R.L. and Dahms, A.M. (1983). Grassroots organizations: A resource book for directors, staff and volunteers of small, community-based non-profit agencies (2nd edition). Prospect Hts, IL: Waveland Press.
Clinard, M.B. (1966). Slums and community development: Experiments in self-help. NY: Free Press.
Cloward, R.A. & Piven, F.F. (1979). Who should be organized? Citizen action vs. jobs and justice? Working Papers for a New Society, 7(1).
Cnann, R.A. (1991). Neighborhood-representing organizations: How democratic are they? Social Service Review, 65(4), 614-634.
Coleman, J.S. (1957). Community conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Cook, D. (1976, March). Negotiation: A tool for community organizers. Unpublished manuscript.
Corrigan, P. & Leonard, P. (1978). Social work practice under capitalism: A marxist approach. London: The Macmillan Press, LTD, (USA, The Humanitis Press, Inc., Atlantic Highlands, NJ).
Cortes, E. Jr. Reweaving the social fabric. http://members.aol .ttresser/cortes.html.
Coser, L. (1957). The functions of social conflict. NY: Free Press.
Covey, S.R. (1989). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Cox, F.M., Erlich, J.L., Rothman, J. & Tropman, J.E. (eds.) (1974). Community action, planning, development: A casebook. F.E. Peacock.
Cox, F.M., Erlich, J.F., Rothman, J. & Tropman, J.E. (eds.) (1987). Strategies of community organization: Macro practice. 4th Edition. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
Cox, F.M., Erlich, J.L., Rothman, J. & Tropman, J.E. (eds.) (1970, 1974, 1979). Strategies of community organization. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press.
___________________ (eds.) (1977). Tactics and techniques of community practice. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press, 2nd edition.
___________________ (eds.) (1974). Community action, planning, development: A casebook. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press.
Craig, G., Derricourt, N. & Loney, M. (eds.) (1982). Community work and the state. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
Creamer, D. (1983). Ellinois Public Action Council. Social Policy, 433(4), 23-25.
Crenson, M.A. (1983). Neighborhood politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Curno, P. (ed.). (1978). Political issues and community work. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
Delgado, G. (1986). Organizing the movement: The roots and growth of ACORN. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Delgado, G. (1994). Beyond the politics of place: New directions in community organizing in the 1990s. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 25 Embarcader Cove, Oakland, CA 94606.
Delgado, G. (1986). Community organizing and political action. Social Policy, 16(4), 40 -47.
Dillick, S. (1953). Community organization for neighborhood development: Past and present. NY: Women's Press & William Morrow & Co.
Domhoff, G.W. (1990). The power elite and the state: How policy is made in America. NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Dunham, A. (1958). Community welfare organization. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
____________________. (1970). The new community organization. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
Ecklein, J. & Lauffer, A. (eds.) (1972). Community organizers and social planners. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Ecklein, J. (1984). Community organizers. 2nd edition, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Education Center for Community Organizing (n.g.). Draft. Feminist organizing principles (Revised). New York: Author. (ECCO, 129 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10021).
Egan, J. (1988). Wisconsin rallies for a progressive budget. Social Policy, 18(3), 62-63.
Else, J. (1987, 1977, 1971). Radicalizing our organizations and operating styles. Social Development Issues, Encyclopedia of Social Work. Social planning and community organization. Silver Spying: NASW.
Encyclopedia of Social Work. NASW, (recent editions) sections on Social Planning and Community Organization.
Erlich, J. & Rivera, F. (1990). Community organizing with people of color. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Evans, S.M. & Boyte, H.C. (1986). Free spaces: The sources of democratic change in America. New York: Harper & Row.
Ewalt, P.L., Freeman, E.M. & Poole, D.L. (eds.) (1998). Community building: Renewal, well-being and shared responsibility. Washington, D.C., NASW Press.
Fantini, M. (1970). Community control and the urban school. NY: Praeger Publishing.
Faulkner, A., Roberts-DeGennaro, M. & Weil, M. (1994). Diversity and development in community practice. New York: Haworth Press.
Fellin, P. (1987, 1995). The community and the social worker. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Publishing.
Fink, D. (1984). The radical vision of Saul Alinsky. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Fish, J.H. (1973). Black power, white control: The struggle of the Woodlawn Organization in Chicago. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fish, J., Nelson, G., Stuhr, W. & church involvement in community organization Witmer, L. (1966). The edge of the ghetto: A study of. Chicago: Urban Planning Commission, Church Federation of Greater Chicago.
Fisher, R. & Kling, J. (1994). Community organization and new social movement theory. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 5(2), 5-23.
Fisher, R. & Kling, J.M. (1987). Leading the people: Two approaches to the role of ideology in community organizing. Radical America, 21(1), 31-45.
Fisher, R. & Kling, J.M. (1993). Mobilizing the community: Local politics in the era of the global city. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fisher, R. & Romanofsky, P. (eds.) (1981). Community organization for the urban social change: A historical perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Fisher, R. (1984, 1994). Let the people decide. Boston: G.C. Hall & Co.
Fisher, R. & Karger, H.J. (1997). Social work and community in a private world: Getting out in public. NY: Longman.
Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1981, 1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. NY: Penguin Books.
Flanagan, J. (1992). The grassroots fundraising book: How to raise money in your community. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
Flanagan, J. (1991). Successful fundraising: A complete handbook for volunteers and professionals.
Flanagan, J. (1984). The successful volunteer organization: Getting started and getting results in non-profit, charitable, grassroots, and community groups. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
Florin, P. & Wandersman, A. (1990). An introduction to citizen participation, voluntary organizations, and community development: Insights for empowerment through research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(1).
Follett, M.P. (1918). The new state: Group organization and the solution of popular government. Longmans, Green and Company.
Foster, M. (1978). Black organizing: The need for a conceptual model of the ghetto. Catalyst, 1(1).
Freire, P. (`1968, 1974). Peadagogy of the oppressed. NY: The Seabury Press.
Gamson, W.A. (1975, 1989). The strategy of social protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
Garland, A.W. (1988). Women activists: Challenging the abuse of power. New York: Feminist Press.
Gaventa, J. (1968). Power and discontent. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
Gaventa, J., B. Smith and A. Willingham (eds.) (1990). Communities in economic Crisis: Appalachia and the south. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Gaventa, J.B. (1980). Power and powerlessness: Quiescence and rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Gavin, C.D. & Cox, F.M. (1987). A history of community organizing since the civil war with special reference to oppressed communities. In Cox et al. (eds.). Strategies of community organization, 26-63.
Georgakas, D. & Suskin, M. (1975). Detroit I do mind dying: A study in urban revolution. NY: St. Martin's Press.
Gibbs, L. Love canal: My story.
Ginsberg, L.H. (1993). Social work in rural communities (2nd edition). Alexandria: Council on Social Work Education.
Gitlin, T. (1987). The sixties: Years of hope, days of rage. Toronto: Bantam.
Gittell, M. (1980). Limits to citizen participation: The decline of community organizations. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Glugoski, G., Reisch, M. & Rivera, F.G. (1994). A holistic ethno-cultural paradigm: A new model for community organization teaching and practice. Journal of Community Practice, 1(1).
Gorz, A. (1967). Strategy for labor: A radical proposal. Boston: Beacon Press.
Grosser, C.F. (1968). Staff role in neighborhood organization. In J.B. Turner (ed.). Neighborhood organization for community action. New York: NASW, 133-145.
Grosser, C.F. (1971). Organizing in the white community. Social Work, 16(3).
Grosser, C.F. (1972, 1976). New directions in community organization: From enabling to advocacy. NY: Frederick & Praeger.
Gulbenkian Foundation. (1973). Current issues in community work. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
Gutierrez, L., Alvarez, A., Lemon, H. & Lewis, B. (1996). Multi-cultural organizing: A strategy for change. Social Work, 41(5), 501-507.
Gutierrez, L.M. & Lewis, E.A. (1990). Feminist organizing with women of color. In J. Erlich & F. Rivera (eds.). Community organizing with people of color.
Haeberle (1989). Planting the grassroots. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Hagedorn, R. & Liebovitz, S. (1968). Participation in community associations by occupation: A test of three theories. American Sociological Review, 33, 272-283.
Haggstrom, W.C. (1987). The tactics of organization building. In Cox et al. (eds.). Strategies of community organization, 405-422.
Hall, G.W., Clark, G.C. & Creedon, M.A. (1987). Advocacy in America: Case studies in social change. Lanham, MD: University press of America.
Hallman, H.W. (1970). Neighborhood control of public programs. NY: Praeger Press.
Hallman, H.W. (1974). Neighborhood government in a metropolitan setting. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hamberg, J., Booth, P., Feingold, M. & Whitman, C. (1967). Where it's at: Research guide for community organizing. Boston: New England Free Press.
Handler, J.F. (1978). Social movements and the legal system: A theory of law reform and social change. NY: Academic Press.
Hanna, M.G. & Buddy, R. (1994). Strategies for community empowerment: Direct -action and transformative approaches to social change practice. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Hardcastle, D.A., Wenocur, S. & Powers, P. (1996). Community practice: Theories and skills for social workers. NY: Oxford University.
Harvey, M. (May, 1975). Black power/White control. American Journal of Sociology, 80, 481-1482.
Hedemann, E. (1986). War resisters league: Organizer's manual. New York: War Resisters League.
Heller, K. (1989). The return to community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17(1), 1-15.
Henderson, P. & Thomas, D.N. (1980). Skills in neighborhood work. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Henderson, P.D.J & Thomas, D.N. (eds.) (1980). The boundaries of change in community work. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Hertz, S.H. (1977, Spring). The politics of the welfare mother's movement: A case study. Signs, 2(3), 600-611.
Hillman, A. & Seever, F. (1968). Making democracy work: A study of neighborhood organization. NY: National Federation of Settlements.
Homan, M.S. (1994). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Homan, M.S. (1999). Rules of the game: Lessons from the field of community change. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Homan, M. (1994). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Horwitt, S.D. (1989). Let them call me rebel: Saul Alinsky, his life and legacy. NY: Knopf.
Hunter, F. (1953). Community power structure. NY: Doubleday.
Hyde, C. (1986). Experiences of women activists: Implications for community organizing theory and practice. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 13, 545-562.
Hyde, C. (1986). Voices of women activists: A feminist centered approach to community organizing. Paper presented to NASW conference on Women's Issues. Atlanta, GA.
Hyde, C. (in press). A feminist model for macro practice: Promises and problems. Administration in Social Work.
Hyman, H.H. (1969). Planning with citizens: Two styles. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(2).
Industrial Areas Foundation. (1990). IAF 50 Years of organizing for change. Chicago, IL: IAF.
Jansson, B.S. (1990). Social Welfare policy: From theory to practice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Jay, A. (1984). How to run a meeting. In Cox et al. (eds.). Tactics and techniques of community practice, Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock, 158-173.
Joseph, B., Mizrahi, T., Peterson, J. & Sugarman, F. (1989, March). Women's perspectives on community organizing: A feminist synthesis of theory and practice. Paper presented.
Journal of Community Action. (1981). Participation in community organizations: A research symposium, 40-60.
Just Economics. (1979, February/March). Opportunity knocks with canvassing.
Kahn, A.J. (1969). Theory and practice of social planning. NY: Russell Sage.
Kahn, S. (1995). Community organization. In Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th edition. Washington, D.C.: NASW Press.
Kahn, S. (1994). Organizing: A guide for grassroots leaders. (Revised edition). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
Kahn, S. (1970, 1996). How people get power. NY: McGraw-Hill Books.
__________________. (1991). Organizing: A guide for grassroots leaders. NY: McGraw-Hall Books, 1982; revised edition.
Kahn, S. & Boyte, H.C. (1980). Rural community organizing: History and models. Community Services Administration, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, Washington, D.C. 20506.
Kelsey, J. & Weiner, D. (1983). The citizen/labor energy coalition. Social Policy, 13(4).
Kettner, P., Daley, J.M. & Nichols, A.W. (1985). Initiating change in organizations and communities: A macro practice model. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Kingsolver, B. (1989, 1996). Holding the line: Women in the great Arizona mine strike of 1983. Ithica, NY: ILR Press/ Cornell University.
Khinduka, S.K. (1979). Community development: Potentials and limitations. In Cox et al. Strategies of community organization, 3rd edition. Program planning and proposal writing: Los Angeles: The Grantsmanship Center, 356-364.
Kiritz, N. & Mundel, J. (1988). Community development: Potentials and limitations. In Cox et al., Strategies of community organization (3rd edition), pp. 356-364. Program planning and proposal writing: Los Angeles: The Grantsmanship Center.
Kiritz, N. (1980). Expanded version. Organization practice (3rd edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Knoepfle, P. (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: Community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Illinois Issues.
Kotler, P., Ferrell, O.C. & Lamb, C. (eds.) (1983). Cases and readings for marketing for non-profit organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotler, M. (1969). Neighborhood government: The local foundation of political life. Indianapolis: Bobs Merrill.
Kotz, N. & Kotz, M.L. (1977). A passion for equality: George Wiley and the movement. NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
Kramer, R.M. (1969). Participation of the poor: Comparative case studies of the war on poverty. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kramer, R.M. & Specht, H. (1969, 1975, 1982). Readings in community organization practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kretzman, J.P. & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community's assets. Evanston, IL: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University Press, 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208.
Krumholz, N. & Forester, J. (1990). Making equity planning work. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Kruzich, J.M. & Austin, M.J. (1984). Supervision and management in community organization agencies. F.M. Cox et al. (eds). Tactics and techniques of community practice, pp. 259-273. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock.
Labor Research Review (Spring, 1991). An organization model of unionism. Chicago: Midwest Center for Labor Research.
Lakey, B., Lakey, G., Napier, R. & Robinson, J. (1995). Grassroots and nonprofit leadership: A guide for organizations in changing times. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
Lancourt, J.E. (1979). Confront or concede. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath & Co.
Lappe, F.M & DuBois, P.M. (1994). The quickening of America: Rebuilding our nation, remaking our lives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lauffer, A. (1977). Grantsmanship. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Leavitt, J. & Saegert, S. (1984). Women and abandoned buildings: A feminist approach to housing. Social Policy, 15(1), 33-39.
Leonard, L, Ariano, B. & Ryan, E. (1982). Strengthening volunteer initiatives: A neighborhood self-help curriculum. Washington: The National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs.
Levine, H. & Harmon, L. (1992). The death of an American Jewish community: A tragedy of good intentions. NY: The Free Press.
Levy, J. (1975). Cezar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa. NY: W.W. Norton, Inc.
Lindeman, E.C. (1936). Wealth & culture: A study of one hundred foundations and community trusts and their operations during the decade, 1921-1930. NY: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
Logan, J.R. & Rabrenovic, G. (1990). Neighborhood associations: Their issues, their allies, and their opponents. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 26(1), 68-94.
Mahaffey, M. & Hanks, J. (eds.) (1982). Practical politics: Social work and political responsibility. Silver Spring, MD: NASW.
Marris, P. & Rein, M. (1967, 1973). Dilemmas of social reform. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Masi, D.A. (1981). Organizing for women: Issues, strategies and services. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Mastrine, B. (November/December, 1976). How to develop an effective funding strategy. Los Angeles: The Grantsmanship Center News.
Matthews, P. (December, 1980-January, 1981). The ideal organizer is a women? Rural America.
Max, S. (1983). Economic expose: Who's stealing your job and picking your pocket and what you can do about it. Citizen Action, 600 W. Fullerton Ave., Chicago, IL 60614.
McDougall, H.A. (1993). Black Baltimore: A new theory of community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
McDowell, W. (1989). Race and ethnicity during the Harlem Jobs Campaign. Journal of Negro History, 69, 114-133.
McKnight, J.L. The future of low-income neighborhoods and the people who reside ` there: A capacity-oriented strategy for neighborhood development. Evanston: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University.
McKnight, J.L. & Kreitzmann, J. (1993). Building communities from inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a communities assets. Evanston: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University.
McKnight, J.L. & Kreitzmann, J. (1984). Community organizing in the 80's: Towards a post-Alinsky agenda. Social Policy, 14(3), 15-17.
Medoff, P. & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of hope: The fall and rise of an urban neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.
Midwest Academy. Organizing manual. Midwest Academy, 600 w. Fullerton Ave., Chicago, IL 60614.
Miller, A.S. (1987). Saul Alinsky: Americas radical reactionary. Radical America, 21(1), 11-18.
Miller, M. with Fazio, T., Limbocker, S. & Thomas, K. (1979). The people fight back: Building a tenants union. San Francisco: Organize Training Center.
Miller, S.M. & Tomaskovic-Devey, D. (1983). Coalition etiquette: Ground rules for building unity. Social Policy, 14(2), 47-49.
Mills, C.W. (1956). The power elite. London: Oxford University Press.
Mintz, B. & Schwartz, M. (1985). The power structure of American business. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mitchell, H.L. (1979). Mean things happening in this land: Life. Montclair, NJ: Allanheld and times of H.L. Mitchell Osman. Social Administration: Advances, trends, emerging principles. Binghamton: Haworth Press.
Mizrahi, T. & Morrison, J.D. (eds.) (1993). Community organization and social administration: Advances, trends and emerging principles. NY: Haworth Press.
Mondros, J.B. & Wilson, S.M. (1994). Organizing for power and empowerment. NY: Columbia University Press.
Morlan, R.L. (1955). Political prairie fire: The Non-partisan League, 1915-1922. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Morrison, A. (1981). Orgins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press.
Morrison, J.D. (1984). Can organizing tenants improve housing? Social Development Issues, 8(3), 103-115.
Morrisey, M.H. (1990). The Downtown Advocate Center: A case study of a welfare rights organization. Social Service Review, 64(2), 189-207.
Mott, A.H. (1986). The decades ahead for community organizations. Social Policy, 16(4), 11-16.
Muwakkil, S. (May 18-24, 1988). Opening new doors for the left: Citizen action's hi-tech reach. In These Times, 6-7.
Naison, M. (1981). Harlem Communists and the politics of Black protest. In Fisher and Romanovsky, Community Organizing for Urban Social Change, Westport: Greenwood Press.
National Commission on Neighborhoods (1979). People building neighborhoods: Final report to the President and Congress of the United States. Washington, D.C: GPO No. 052-003-00616-2.
Naureckas, J. (April 19-25, 1989). National People's Action: Madness in their method. In These Times, p. 6.
Nix, H.L. The community and its involvement in the study, planning, action process. Department HEW, Pub. Health Serv., 1977, HEW Publications, No. (CDC) 78 -8355.
National Committee of the National Organization for Women, Inc. GUIDELINES TO FEMINIST CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING. 1982, (write to National C.R. Committee, Dixie L. Johnson, Chair, Route 3, Box 162B, Cheney, Washington, 99004).
North American Congress on Latin America (1976). NACLA research methodology guide. New York: Author.
Norton, W.J. (1927). The cooperative movement in social work. NY: The Macmillan Company.
O'Brien, D.J. (1975). Neighborhood organization and interest-group processes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
O'Brien, D.J. (1974). The public goods dilemma and the "apathy" of the poor toward neighborhood organization. Social Service Review, 48(2).
O'Donnell, S.M. (1995). Is community organizing "the greatest job" one could have? Findings from a survey of Chicago organizers. Journal of Community Practice, 2(1), 1-19.
Ohri, A., Manning, B. & Curno, P. (eds.) (1982). Community work and racism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, LTD.
O.M. Collective (1971). The organizer's manual. NY: Bantam.
Pecukonis, E. & Wenocur, S. (1991). Perceptions of self and collective efficacy in community organization theory and practice. Journal of Community Practice, 1(2), 5-21.
Perlman, J.E. (1979). Grassrooting the system. Social Policy. In Cox et al. Strategies of Community Organizaiton, 403-426.
Perlman, R. & Gurin, A. (1972). Community organization and social planning. NY: John Wiley and Council on Social Work Education.
Peirce, N.R. & Steinbach, C.F. (1987). Corrective capitalism: The rise of American's community development corporations. NY: Ford Foundation.
Perrucci, R. & Potter, H.R. (1989). Networks of power, organizational actors at the national, corporate and community levels. NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Pierce, G.F. (1984). Activism that makes sense: Congregations and community organization. Paulist Press, New York.
Pierson, J. (1982). Moving women up: A manual for breaking down barriers. Silver Spring, MD: NASW.
Pilisuk, M., McAllister, J. & Rothman, J. (1996). Coming together for action: The challenge of contemporary grassroots community organizing. Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 15-33.
Piven, F.Fox & Cloward, R.A. (1979). Poor people's movements: Why they succeed, how they fail. NY Vintage Books.
Piven, F.F. & Cloward, R.A. (May-June, 1979). Who should be organized? Citizen action vs. jobs and justice? Working Papers for a New Society, 7(1).
Piven, F.F. & Cloward, R.A. (1982). The new class war: Reagan's attack on the welfare state and its consequences. New York: Pantheon.
Pope, J. (1989). Biting the hand that feeds them: Organizing women at the grassroots level. NY: Praeger.
Poplin, D.E. (1979). Communities: A survey of theories and methods of research. NY: Macmillan, 2nd edition.
Putnam, R.D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy, Robert D. Putnam with Robert Leonardi and Raffaella Y. Nanetti. Princeton University Press.
Pyuger, R. & Specht, H. (June, 1969). Assessing theoretical models of community organization practice: Alinsky as a case in point. Social Service Review, 123 -135.
Quirion, H. (1972). Community organization and political action in Montreal. Social Work, 17(5), 85-90.
Rapp, D.W. (1982). Ideology as an aspect of community organization and advocacy. Social Development Issues, 6(1), 53-61.
Reagon, D.J. (1983). Coalition politics: Turning the century. In B. Smith (ed.), Home girls: A Black feminist anthology, 356-368. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press.
Reisch, M., Wenocur, S. & Sherman, W. (1981). Empowerment, conscientization and animation as core social work skills: Politics of profession building. Social Service Review, 70-93.
Reitzes, D.C. & Reitzes, D.C. (1991). Metro Seniors. Gerontologist, 256-262.
Reitzes, D.C. & Reitzes, D.C. (1987). The Alinsky legacy: Alive and kicking. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Reitzes, D.C. & Reitzes, D.C. (1987). Alinsky in the 1980s: Two contemporary Chicago community organizations. The Sociological Quarterly, 28(2), 265-284.
Resource Women. (1993). Church funding resource guide. Washington: author.
Riger, S. (1993). What's wrong the empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 121-144.
Rivera, F.G. & Erlich, J.L. (1991, 1995). Community organizing in a diverse society. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Rivera, G.G. & Erlich, J. (1984). An assessment framework for organizing in emerging minority communities. In Cox et al. (eds.). Tactics and techniques of community practice, 98-108.
Roberts-DeGennaro, M. (1986). Factors contributing to coalition maintenance. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 13, 248-264.
Roberts-DeGennaro, M. (1987). Patterns of exchange relationships in building a coalition. Administration in Social Work, 11, 59-67.
Robinson, B. & Hanna, M.G. (1994). Lessons for academics from grassroots community organizing: A case study-The Industrial Areas Foundation. Journal of Community Practice, 1(4), 63-94.
Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). NY: Free Press.
Rogers, E. & Shoemaker, F.F. (1971). The communication of innovations. NY: The Free Press.
Rogers, M.B. (1990). Cold anger: A story of faith and power politics. Texas: Un. of North Texas press.
Rogler, L. (1972). Migrant in the city: The life of a Puerto Rican action group. NY: Basic Books, Inc.
Rose, S.M. (1981). Reflection on community organization theory. Social Development Issues, 5(2-3), 151-156.
Rosenthal, B.B. & Mizrahi, T. (Spring, 1990). Coalitions: Building strength from diversity.
Ross, M.G. (1967). Community organization: Theory and principles. NY: Harper and Sons, 1955; and 2nd edition with B.W. Lappin, Harper & Row.
Rothman, J. (ed.), (1999). Reflections on community organization. F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc.
Rothman, J. (1995). Approaches to community intervention. In J. Rothman, J.L. Erlich, J.E. Tropman (eds.). Strategies of Community Intervention (5th Edition). Itasca: F.E. Peacock, 26-63.
Rothman, J. (1974). Planning and organizing for social change. NY: Columbia University Press.
Rothman, J., Erlich, J.L. & Teresa, J.G. (1976). Promoting innovation and change in organizations and communities. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Rothman, J., Tropman, J.E., & Erlich, J.L. (eds) (1995). Strategies of community intervention. (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Peacock Press.
Rothstein, R. (1973). What is an organizer? Chicago: Midwest Academy.
Rubin, H.J. & Rubin, I. (1986). Community organizing and development. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.
Russell, D.M. (1990). Political organizing in grassroots politics. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Russell-Erlich, J.L. & Rivera, F.G. (1987). Community empowerment as a non-problem. Community Development Journal, 22(1), 2-10.
Schaller, L.S. (1958). Community organization: Conflict and reconciliation. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Shellow, J.R. & Stella, N.C. (eds.) (1989). Grant seekers guide (3rd revised edition): National network of grantmakers. Mt. Kisco, NY: Moyer-Bell Limited.
Silver, M., Social infrastructure organizing technology. Baltimore, UMAB School of Social Work and Community Planning, 1980, also dissertation by same name, School of Social Welfare, UC-Berkeley, June, 1980.
Silver, M. (1979). Canvassers doorknocking technology. UMAB: Author.
Simon, B.L. (1994). Tradition in American social work. A history. NY: Columbia University Press.
Simmons, L.B. (1994). In hard times: Labor and neighborhoods in Hartford. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Smith, B. (1987). Digging our own graves: Coal miners and the struggle over black lung disease. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Smith, M.J. (1975). When I say no, I feel guilty. NY: Bantan Books.
Sociological Imagination. Sociology and social action, part I & part II. Vol. 33, No. 1, 1996. http://comm-org.wisc.edu/si/sihome.htm
Soifer, S.D. (1993). Tenants united for fairness. Tenant Organizing Manual. Author.
Soifer, S.D. & Resnick, H. (1993). Prospects for social work cooperatives in the 1990s. Administration in Social Work, 17(3), 99-116.
Solomon, B.B. (1978). Black empowerment: Social work in oppressed communities. NY: Columbia University Press.
Spergel, I.A. (1969). Community problem-solving: The delinquency example. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
_______________ (ed.) (1972). Community organization: Studies in constraint. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Steiner, J.F. (1921, 1925). Community organization: A study of its theory and current practice. NY: The Century Company.
Staples, L.H. (1990). Powerful ideas about empowerment, administration in social work. 14(2), 29-41.
Staples, L. (1984). Roots to power: A manual for grassroots organizing. NY: Praeger Publishing.
Staples, L. (1981). Can't ya hear me knocking. The Organizer, 9(2), 12-20.
Stein, A. (1986). Between organization and movement: ACORN and the Alinsky model of community organizing. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 31, 93-115.
Steinback, J. (1979). In dubious battle. New York: Penguin.
Stoeker, R. (1994). Defending community: The struggle for alternative redevelopment in Cedar-Riverside. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.
Stoeker, R. & Beckwith, D. (1992). Advancing Toledo's neighborhood movement through participatory action research: Integrating activist and academic approaches. The Clinical Sociology Review, 10, 198-213.
Stoeker, R & Stall, S. Community organizing or organizing community: Gender and the crafts of empowerment. (a COMM-ORG 1996 working paper). http://www.22.214.171.124/comm-org/papers96/gender2.html
Tabb, W.K. (1979). The political economy of the Black ghetto. NY: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.
Taylor, S.H. & Roberts, R.W. (eds.) (1985). Theory and practice of community social work. NY: Columbia University Press.
Third Force (July/August, 1996). Alinskey discovered organizing: Like Columbus discovered America. Interview, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 14-17.
Thomas, D.N. (1976). Organizing for social change. London: Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Thompson, J.D. (1967). Organizations in action. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Tierandsen, C. (1980). Education for citizenship: A foundation's experience. Santa Cruz: Emil Schwarzhaupt Foundation.
Tilly, C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Tjerandsen, C. (1980). Education for citizenship: Foundation's experience. Santa Cruz, CA: Emil Schwarzhaupt Foundation, Inc.
Tse T.M. (1938). Five essays. Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1966, original Publisher.
Trolander, J.A. (September, 1982). Social change: Settlement houses and Saul Alinsky, 1939-1965. Social Service Review, 56(3), 346-368
Tropman, J.E., Erlich, J.L. & Rothman, J. (eds.) (1995). Tactics and techniques of community intervention, 3rd ed., Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Press.
Turner, J.B. (ed.) (1968). Neighborhood organization for community action. NY: NASW.
Twelvetrees, A. (1989). Organizing for neighborhood development: A comparative study of community development corporations and citizen power organizations. Adershot, England: Gower Publishing.
Twentieth Century Fund. (1971). CDC's: New hope for the inner city. NY.
Vermont Toxic Educational Project. Field guide for community workers. Box 485, Barre, VT: Author.
Walls, D. (1994, 1996). Power to the people: Twenty years of community organizing. The Workbook, http://loki.sonoma.edu/exed/dwalls/commun.html.
Warren, D.I. (1975). Black neighborhoods: An assessment of community power. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Warren, D. & Warren, R.B. (1977). The neighborhood organizer's handbook. University of Notre Dame Press.
Warren, M.R. (1996). Creating a multi-racial democratic community: A case study of the Texas Industrial Areas Foundation. Conference on Social Networks and Urban Poverty March 1-2, 1996, Russell Sage Foundation, New York City. http://www.cpn.org/ ies/texas_iaf1.html.
Warren, R.L. (1973, 1977). The community in America. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company.
_________________ (ed.) (1966, 1973, 1977). Perspectives on the American community: A book of readings. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company.
_________________. (1977). Social change and human purpose: Toward understanding and action. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company.
Warren, R.L., Rose, S.M. & Bergunder, A.F. (1974). The structure of urban reform. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Company.
Weil, M.O. (1986). Women, community and organizing. In N. VanDerBerght & L. Cooper (eds.). Feminist Visions of Social Work, Silver Spring, MD: NASW, 187 -210.
Weil, M.O. & Gamble, D.N. (1995). Community practice models. In Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th edition. Massachusetts Press.
Weisbord, M. & Janoff, S. (1995). Future Search: An action guide to finding common ground in organizations and communities. Berrett-Koehler. San Francisco.
Welcome, V.F. (1991). (as told to James M. Abraham). My life and times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Henry House Publishers.
Wellstone, P.D. (1978). How the rural poor got power. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Wenocur, S. & Reisch, M. (1989). From charity to enterprise: The development of American social work in a market economy. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Wenocur, S. (1975). A political view of the United Way. Social Work, 20(3).
Wenocur, S. (June, 1975). The adaptability of voluntary organizations: External pressures and United Way organizations. Policy and Politics.
Wenocur, S. (Fall, 1975). The social welfare workers movement: A case study of new left thought in practice. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare.
Wenocur, S. & Soifer, S.D. (1997). Prospects for community organization. In M. Reishch & E. Gambrill (eds.). Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
West, G. (1981). The national welfare rights movement: The social protest of poor women. New York: Praeger.
Wilson, J.Q. (1973). Political organizations. NY: Basic Books.
Withorn, A. (1987). The politics of organizing. Radical America, 21(1), 8-9.
Withorn, A. (1987). Socialist analysis and organizing: An interview with Richard A. Cloward and Frances Fox Piven.
Wood, R.L. (1995). Faith in action: Religion, race and the future of democracy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley; available from University Microfilms--UMI).
World Vision International (1989). Community organization: What does it have to do with the urban church? Urban Advance, 1, 1-3.
Wrong, D.H. (1979). Power: Its forms, bases and uses. NY: Harper & Row Publishers.
Wypijewski, J. (1997). A stirring in the land. The Nation, September 8/15, 17-25.
Zald, M.N. & McCarthy, J.D. (1987). Social movements in an organizational society -collective essays. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
Zaltman, G. & Duncan, R. (1977). Strategies for planned change. John Wiley & Sons.
Zastrow, C. , Introduction to social welfare institutions.omewood, IL: The Dorsey Press, 1978, Ch. 18, "Social Work Community Practice."
Zinn, H. (1980). A people's history of the United States. New York: Harper Colophon Books.