People, Power and Change

(HDS 2914)

Instructor: Marshall Ganz
Hauser Center 219 (495-3937)
Littauer 230
Tu-Th 10:00 - 11:30 A.M.
Spring 2000

Teaching Fellows:

Carlos Diaz
Heather Harker
Andrea Sheppard
Administrative Assistant:
Beth Bandy
"In democratic countries, knowledge of how to combine is the mother of all other forms of knowledge; on its progress depends that of all the others." De Tocqueville


1. Students base class work on volunteer service with an "organizing project" of their own choosing that should require an average of 6 hours per week. Students may initiate their own project or serve with one of a wide variety of community or campus organizations. They may continue a current project or begin a new one. Projects should be designed to achieve measurable outcomes by the end of the semester based on mobilizing the participation of others. To facilitate project design, teaching fellows will meet with students individually during the first week of class. Participation in a "skills session" is required on Saturday, February 12, from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM, to familiarize students with leadership tools that can help them in their projects.

2. In classes which meet for 1.5 hours, twice a week for thirteen weeks, students will use an organizing praxis drawn from lectures and reading to reflect critically on their experience and observations. Sessions alternate between discussion of new material and of student projects. Students are expected to attend all sessions, do the reading and take an active part in discussions.

3. Reading is assigned for only the first class meeting each week (except for the first and last weeks of the course), combines theory, practice, and history and averages about 125 pages per week. My notes on each week's topic are included to introduce the readings, explain the charts and provide a foundation for class discussion. An introductory paragraph to each of the week's readings helps focus attention and prioritize readings. Recommended readings are available for those who wish to pursue a topic more deeply and can be purchased as a separate reading packet. Mondros and Wilson provide particularly good summaries of the material we are covering from a community organizing perspective.

4. Beginning with the third week of class, students submit "reflection papers" of 1 to 2 pages in which they may use our praxis to interpret their organizing experience, our use their experience to evaluate our praxis. At the end of each week's readings questions are posed which may be useful in stimulating thinking about the project. After the first two reflection papers - which are required - any two may be missed with no excuse, but the rest must be turned in. Students will take turns initiating discussion each week.

5. At the end of the term students submit a 20 page final paper based on analysis of their organizing project. At midterm, in lieu of a response paper for the week of March 20, students will submit a 10 page written analysis of how well their project is "working," discussing why or why not. Course evaluation will be based on the student's demonstrated ability to analyze their own organizing project, using the organizing praxis as appropriate. Final grades are based on the following: class participation and weekly reflection (50%), midterm progress report (20%), final report (30%).

1. Introduction: Overview of Organizing (Week 1, 2/1) (94 pp.)

Welcome. Today we discuss the goals of the course, how they will be accomplished, what the requirements are, etc. We begin by looking at how organizing fits into the scheme of public life. "What is Organizing" summarizes the praxis of organizing we will use this semester. Aristotle, Bellah, De Tocqueville, the Catholic Bishops, Alinsky, and McKnight offer normative, sociological and historical views of social organization that informs our approach. Woliver provides a snapshot theoretical view of organizing while McKnight helps to distinguish organizing from social service. We will also distinguish among citizens, customers, and clients and constituency, market, and control organizations.

a) Marshall Ganz, "What is Organizing", 2000. (T)

b) Aristotle, Politica, Book 1, Chapter 1-2 (pp.1127-1130). (T)

c) Robert Bellah, et al, The Good Society, "Introduction: We Live Through Institutions," (p.1-18) (T)

d) Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume II, Part II, Chapters 2-6, (pp. 506-517). (H/T)

e) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 1, (pp.3-23). (P)

f) National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter of Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, 1986 (pp.32-63) (H)

g) John McKnight, "Services are Bad for People," (pp.41-44). (T)

h) Laura R. Woliver, "Mobilizing and Sustaining Grassroots Dissent," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1996, (pp.139-51). (P)

i) Charts and Questions

a) The Bible, Exodus, Chapters 2-6, (pp.82-89). (H)

b) Robert Middlekauf, The Glorious Cause, Chapter 11, "Resolution," (pp.221-239). (H)

c) Theda Skocpol, "The Tocqueville Problem: Civic Engagement in American Democracy," in Social Science History, Vol. 4, No.4, Winter, 1997. (pp. 455-477). (H)

d) Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, Part I, (pp. 31-61). (H)

e) Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Chapter 1, Introduction (pp. 1-37).

a) Dennis Dalton, Gandhi, Chapter 4, "Civil Disobedience: The Salt Satyagraha" (pp.91 -138). (H)

b) Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, Chapter 5, "The Montgomery Bus Boycott," (p.143 -205) (H)

c) Boston Globe; Greater Boston Interfaith Organization articles; 1998-99; Selected.

d) Louis Uchitelle, "Minimum Wages, City by City; As More Local Laws Pass, More Businesses Complain"; New York Times, Friday, November 19, 1999.

e) Richard Applebaum, "The Campus Anti-Sweatshop Movement," The American Prospect; October, 1999. (pp.71-78)

f) OPTIONAL: Timothy Garton Ash, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity 1980-82, Introduction, Chapter 1 "Inside the Lenin Shipyard," (pp. 1-67). (H)

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on the Practice of Organizing. 2000

b) Thich Nhat Hanh, Thundering Silence: Sutra on Knowing the Better Way to Catch a Snake, "The Raft is Not the Shore," (pp.30-33). (P)

c) Susan Fiske and Shelly E. Taylor, Social Cognition, Chapter 6, "Social Schemata," (pp.139-42, 171-81).

d) Ellen Langer, Mindfulness, Chapter 3, "The Roots of Mindlessness," (pp.19-35); Chapter 4, "The Costs of Mindlessness," (pp.43-55); Chapter 5, "The Nature of Mindfulness," (pp.61-77); Chapter 7, "Creative Uncertainty," (pp.115-129). (P)

e) Sharan Merriam, Case Study Research in Education, Chapter 6, "Being a Careful Observer", (pp.87-103); Chapter 8, "The Components of Data Analysis," (pp.123-146); Chapter 10, "Dealing with Validity, Reliability, and Ethics in Case Study Research," (pp. 163-184). (P)

f) Helpful Hint #1

g) Questions About Methodology

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Actors, Values and Interests. 2000

b) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "A Word About Words," (pp.48 -62). (P)

c) Rita K. Atkinson, et al, Introduction to Psychology, Chapter 14, "Personality Theory and Assessment," (pp.522-26). (T)

d) Clayton Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness and Growth, Chapter 2, "Theory," (p. 6-13). (T)

e) Jerome Bruner, Acts of Meaning, excerpt, Chapter 1, "The Proper Study of Man," (pp.26-30). (T)

f) Max Weber, Economy and Society, Volume I, "Types of Social Action," (pp.24-26). (T)

g) Roy G. D'Andrade, Human Motives and Cultural Models, Chapter 2, "Schemas and Motivation," (pp. 23-44). (T)

h) Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, Chapter 3, "Explaining the Mobilization of Interests," (pp. 41-55). (T)

i) Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 1, "Social Action Organizations and Power," (pp. 1-10). (T)

j) Charts and Questions

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Actors, Resources, Power 2000.

b) Richard Emerson, "Power-Dependence Relations", American Sociological Review, 27:31-40. (T)

c) Bernard M. Loomer, "Two Kinds of Power," The D.R. Sharpe Lecture on Social Ethics, October 29, 1975, Criterion, Vol. 15, No.1, 1976 (pp. 11-29). (T)

d) Jean Baker Miller, Women's Growth in Connection: Writings from the Stone Center, Chapter 11, "Women and Power," (pp.197-205). (T)

e) John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley, Introduction, (pp.1-32).

f) Clarence Stone, Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, Chapter 11 "Rethinking Community Power: Social Production vs. Social Control," (pp. 219-233). (T)

g) Thucydides, The Peloponessian Wars, Book V, Chapter 7, "The Sixteenth Year - the Melian Dialogue," (pp.400-408). (H)

h) Charts and Questions

Project Discussion: Power (Week 4, 2/24)

Second Required Reflection Paper Due: Actors and Power Map

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Leadership, 2000.

b) James McGregor Burns, Leadership, Chapter 1, "The Power of Leadership," (p.9-28). (T)

c) Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, "Values in Leadership," Chapter 1, (pp. 13-27). (T/P)

d) J. Richard Hackman and Richard E. Walton, Chapter 3, "Leading Groups in Organizations," in Designing Effective Work Groups, Paul Goodman (pp. 72-119). (T/P)

e) The Bible, Exodus, Chapter 18 (pp. 107-09); Numbers, Chapter 11 (pp. 216-19). (H)

f) Jo Freeman, "The Tyranny of Structurelessness," Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 1970, (pp.1-8). (P)

g) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 5, "Native Leadership," (pp.64-75). (P)

h) Dr. M.L. King, Jr. A Testament of Hope, "The Drum Major Instinct," (p.259-78). (H)

i) Charts and Questions

j) Helpful Hint #2

k) OPTIONAL: Belinda Robnett, "African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership and Micromobilization," American Journal of Sociology, Volume 101, Number 6 (May 1996), (pp.1661-93).

a) Marshall Ganz, Notes on Relationships, 2000

b) Peter M. Blau, "Introduction," in Exchange and Power in Social Life, (pp.1-11). (T)

c) Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties," American Sociological Review, 78:6 (pp. 1360-78). (T)

d) Erving Goffman, "On face-work: an analysis of ritual elements in social interaction," in Interpersonal Dynamics, Bennis, et al. (pp. 175 - 189). (T)

e) Robert Eccles and Nitin Nohria, "Face to Face: Making Network Organizations Work," in Networks and Organizations, HBS, (pp. 288-308). (T)

f) Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work, "Social Capital and Institutional Success", Chapter 6, (p. 163-185). (T)

g) Malcolm Gladwell, "Six Degrees of Lois Weisberg," in The New Yorker, January 11, 1999 (pp. 52-63).

h) Kris Rondeau, "A Woman's Way of Organizing," Labor Research Review #18, (pp. 45-59). (H/P)

i) Jim Rooney, Organizing the South Bronx, Chapter 6, Relational Organizing: Launching South Bronx Churches, (pp. 105-18). (H)

j) Ian Simmons, "On One-to-Ones," in The Next Steps of Organizing: Putting Theory into Action, Sociology 91r Seminar, (pp. 12-15) 1998. (P)

k) Kim Bobo, et al, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 10, "Recruiting," (pp.78-85). (P)

l) Charts and Questions

2. Mobilizing Understanding I: Motivation, Narrative, Celebration: Interpreting WHY(Week 7, 3/14) (163 p.)
a) Marshall Ganz, Notes on Interpretation I: Motivation, 2000. (P)

b) David Snow, et al, "Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation," American Sociological Review, 51, August 1986. (pp. 464-81) (T).

c) Susan Fiske and Shelly E. Taylor, Social Cognition, Chapter 12, "Attitudes: Cognition and Persuasion," (pp. 340-2, 344-9, 352-55, 359-68). (T)

d) James M. Jasper, "The Emotions of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions In and Around Social Movements," Sociological Forum, Vol. 13, No.3, 1998, (pp. 397-421). (T)

e) Jordon Peterson, Narrative Chart, Figure 4, "Neuropsychology and Mythology of Motivation for Group Aggression," Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, Volume 2, 1999, (p. 542).

f) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 6, "Community Traditions and Organizations," (p.76-88). (P)

g) William Gamson, Talking Politics, "Collective Action Frames," (pp.6-8). (P)

h) Dennis Chong, Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement, Chapter 5, "Creating the Motivation to Participate in Collective Action," (pp. 90-102), Chapter 8, "Strategies of Collective Action," (pp. 173-85). (T/H)

i) William Shakespeare, Henry V, Act IV, Scene 3, "We Happy Few," (pp. 140 -149). (H)

j) Ruth McKenney, Industrial Valley, "The Beginning" (pp.25-32), "The First Sit Down," (pp. 251-270). (H)

k) Mario Cuomo, " Two Cities," Key note Address to Democratic National Convention, July 17, 1984, (11 pp.). (H)

l) Ronald Reagan, "First Inaugural Address," January 20, 1981, (7 pp.). (H)

m) Dr. M.L. King, "I Have A Dream," A Testament of Hope, (pp. 217-221). (P)

n) Charts and Questions

o) OPTIONAL:  William Gamson, Encounters with Unjust Authority, Chapter 12, "The Theory and Practice of Rebellion," (pp. 147-155). (P)

3. Mobilizing Understanding II: Strategy, Deliberation, Meetings: Interpreting HOW (Week 8, 3/21) (147 pp.)
a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Interpretation II: Strategy, 2000. (P)

b) Paul DiMaggio, "Institution and Agency" from "Culture and Cognition" in Annual Review of Sociology, 1997, (pp.268-72).

c) Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Chapter 2, (pp. 57-74). (T)

d) The Bible, Book of Samuel, Chapter 17, Verses 4-49. (H)

e) Henry Mintzberg, Crafting Strategy, Harvard Business Review, July, 1987, (pp.66-74). (T)

f) Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 8 "Strategy," (pp.155-174). (P)

g) Marshall Ganz. "Resources and Resourcefulness: Strategic Capacity in the Unionization of California Agriculture, 1959-1966", American Journal of Sociology, January 2000, (pp.1003-1062).

h) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 4 "Strategy" (pp.20- 33), Chapter 5, "A Guide to Tactics," (pp.34-42). (P)

i) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 12, "Planning and Facilitating Meetings," (pp.94-102). (P)

j) Charts and Questions

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Action, 2000.

b) Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez, Prologue, (pp. xxi-xxv). (H)

c) Pamela Oliver and Gerald Marwell, "Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action," Chapter 11, (pp 251-270), in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Morris and Mueller. (T)

d) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 4, "The Program," (pp. 53-64.) (P)

e) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Tactics, (p. 126-36, 148-55, 158-61). (P)

f) Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part Two: The Methods of Nonviolent Action, Political Jiu-Jitsu at Work; Table of Contents, (pp. xii-xvi). (P)

g) Kennedy School Case C16-91-1034, "Orange Hats of Fairlawn: A Washington DC Neighborhood Battles Drugs," (pp.1-18). (H)

h) Mary Beth Rogers, Cold Anger, Chapter 11, "Leave Them Alone. They're Mexicans," (pp. 105-126). (H)

i) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 7, "Designing Actions," (pp.48 -54), Chapter 20, "Grassroots Fundraising," (pp. 176-182). (P)

j) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 14, "Using the Media," (pp.116-123). (P)

k) Charts and Questions

l) OPTIONAL: Jennifer Gordon, "We Make the Road by Walking: Immigrant Workers, the Workplace Project, and the Struggle for Social Change," Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol.30, #2, Summer, 1995, (pp. 407-450). (H)

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Campaigns, 2000.

b) Connie Gersick, "Pacing Strategic Change: The Case of a New Venture," Academy of Management Journal, February 1994 (pp. 1-4, 16-20).

c) Sim Sitkin, "Learning Through Failure: The Strategy of Small Losses", Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.14, 1992, (pp. 231-261).

d) Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, Chapter 14 (pp. 140-161). (H)

e) Martha Chen, "Engendering World Conferences: the International Women's Movement and the United Nations", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1995, (pp. 477-491).

f) Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope, Chapter 3, "Don't Dump On Us: Organizing the Neighborhood," (pp.67-89). (H)

g) Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa, Book IV, Book V, "Victory in the Vineyards," Chapters 6-14, (pp.263-325). (H)

h) Steven Greenhouse, "Yearlong Effort Key to Success for Teamsters," New York Times, August 25, 1997. (H)

i) Marshall Ganz. Campaign Planning Packet. (P)

j) Charts and Questions.

a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Organizations, 2000.

b) Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 3, "Organizations," (pp. 55-77). (P)

c) Richard L. Moreland, "The Formation of Small Groups", in Kendrick, C. (ed.) (1987), Group Processes, (pp. 80-105). (T/P)

d) Kenwyn Smith and David Berg, "A Paradoxical Conception of Group Dynamics", Human Relations, V40:10, 1987, (pp. 633-58) (T)

e) Irving Janis, "Groupthink", in Hackman, J.R. (1983), Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, (pp. 378-384) (T).

f) J. Richard Hackman, "A General Model of Group Development," (1 page chart) (T/P).

g) Charts and Questions

a) Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, Chapter 11, "The Personal Challenge," (pp. 250-276). (P)

b) Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House, Chapters 4-5, (pp. 60-89). (P)

c) Jacques Levy; Cesar Chavez; Book II, Chapter 11 (pp.89-93), Book III, Prologue, Chapter 1-3 (pp.95-114). (P)

d) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "The Education of the Organizer," (p.63-80). (P)

e) Nelson Mandela, 1994 Inaugural Speech, Excerpt.

f) Robert Wuthnow, Acts of Compassion., Chapter 9, "Envisioning a Better Society," (pp.249-81). (H)

g) Robert Coles, The Call to Service, Chapter 8, "Consequences," (pp. 254-84). (P)

h) Langer, Chapter 8, "Mindfulness on the Job," (pp.133-148). (P)

i) OPTIONAL: Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 2, "The Organizers," (pp.11-35). (P)

a) Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 11 (p. 190-204) (P).

b) Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone:Democracy in America and the End of the 20th Century," 1994m (pp. 18-33). (H)

c) Theda Skocpol, "Unraveling From Above," The American Prospect, March, 1996 (pp. 20-25). (H)

d) Margaret Weir and Marshall Ganz, "Reconnecting People and Politics," The New Majority: Toward a Popular Progressive Politics, (pp. 149-171). (H)

e) Ralph Reed, Politically Incorrect, Chapter 13, "Miracle at the Grassroots," (pp. 189-202); Chapter 17, "What is Right about America: How You Can Make a Difference," (pp.249-268). (H).

f) William Grieder; Who will tell the People?, Chapter 10, "Democratic Promise," (p. 222-241). (H)

g) Ernesto Cortes, "Reweaving the Fabric: The Iron Rule and the IAF Strategy for Dealing with Poverty Through Power and Politics," IAF, (pp 1-31). (H)

h) John B. Judis, "The Pressure Elite: Inside the Narrow World of Advocacy Group Politics," The American Prospect, #9, Spring 1992, (pp. 15-29). (H)

1. Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Vintage, 1960.

2. Langer, Ellen J., Mindfulness, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1990.

3. Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Random House, 1971.

4. Kim Bobo, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s, 1991, Seven Locks.

5. CMO PAL-177 Reader.

B. Recommended Reading

1. Jacqueline B. Mondros and Scott M. Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

C. Lifetime Reading

a) Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics : Solidarity Beyond the State (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution), ed. Jackie Smith, Charles Chatfield, Ron Pagnucco (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1997).
b) Bringing Transnational Relations Back in : Non-State Actors,Domestic Structures and International Institutions, (Cambridge Studies in International Relations), ed. Thomas Risse-Kappen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
c) Kreisi, Hanspter, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Dyvendak, and Marco G. Giugni, New Social Movements in Western Europe, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).
d) Margarita Lopa, Singing the Same Song: Reflections of Two Generations of NGO Workers in the Philippines.
e) Mandela, Nelson; Long Walk to Freedom: An Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, (London, Abacus, 1994).
f) Dalton, Dennis; Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action, (New York: Columbia, 1993).
g) Laba, Roman, The Roots of Solidarity: A Political Sociology of Poland's Working Class Democratization, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991)
h) Goodwyn, Lawrence; Breaking the Barrier: The Rise of Solidarity in Poland, (New York: Oxford University Press,1991).
i) Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts; (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
j) Ash, Timothy Garton, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity 1980-82, (London, Jonathan Cape, 1983).
k) Gandhi, Mahatma, Autobiography; (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957).
a) Organizing to Win: New Research on Union Strategies, ed. Kate Bronfenbrenner, Sheldon Friedman, Richard W. Hurd, Rudolph A. Oswald, and Ronald L. Seeber. (Ithica: ILR Press, 1998)
b) Zieger, Robert, The CIO, 1935-1955. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995).
c) Geoghegan, Thomas, Which Side Are You On?: Trying to Be For Labor When It's Flat on It's Back. (Plume, 1991)
d) Cohen, Lizabeth, Making a New Deal, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
e) Goodwyn, Lawrence, The Populist Moment, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).
f) Dubovsky, Melvyn and Warren Van Tine, John L. Lewis, A Biography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977).
g) Steinbeck, John, In Dubious Battle, (Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 1937).
h) McKenny, Ruth, Industrial Valley, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1939 ).
a) Branch, Taylor, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65, (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1999)
b) Halberstam, David, The Children (New York: Random House, 1998)
c) Lewis, John, Walking With the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1998)
d) Dittmer, John, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi, (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995).
e) Payne, Charles, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
f) Skerry, Peter, Mexican Americans: the Ambivalent Minority, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).
g) Takaki, Ronald, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans; (New York: Penguin, 1989).
h) Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988).
i) Morris, Aldon, Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change; (New York: Free Press, 1984).
j) McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1980 (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1982)
a) Civic Engagement in American Democracy, eds. Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina, (DC: Russel Sage, 1999).
b) Clemens, Elisabeth, The People's Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest Group Politics in the United States, 1890-1925 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
c) Reed, Ralph, Politically Incorrect: The Emerging Faith Factor in American Politics, (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1994).
d) Hertzke, Alan, Echoes of Discontent, (Washington: CQ Press, 1993).
e) Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties; (New York: Bantam Books, 1989)
f) Klatch, Rebecca E., Women of the New Right, (Temple, 1987.)
g) Crawford, Alan, Thunder on the Right, (Pantheon, 1980).
a) Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod, Faithful and Fearless: Moving Feminist Protest inside the Church and Military; (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).
b) Feree, Myra Max, Controversy and Coalition: New Feminist Movement (New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994).
c) Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod and Carol McClurg Mueller, The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe , (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987).
d) Mansbridge, Jane, Why We Lost the ERA, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).
e) Luker, Kristin, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).
f) Gelb, Joyce and Marian Lief Palley, Women and Public Policies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982).
g) Evans, Sara, Personal Politics (New York: Vintage, 1980).
a) Dowie, Mark,Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the 20th Century; (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1995).
b) Dunlap, Riley and Angela G. Mertig, American Environmentalism: the U.S. Environmental Movement, 1970-1990; (Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1992).
a) Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope (Boston: South End Press, 1994)
b) Fisher, Robert, Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America; (New York: Macmillan, 1994).
c) Horwitt, Sanford, Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky; (New York: Knopf, 1989).
a) Rooney, Jim, Organizing the South Bronx (New York: State University of New York, 1995).
b) Robinson, Buddy and Mark G. Hanna, "Lessons for Academics from Community Organizing: A Case Study - The Industrial Areas Foundation" in Journal of Community Practice, Volume 1(4), 1994, (pp.63-94).
c) Freedman, Samuel G, Upon this Rock: The Miracles of a Black Church; (New York: Harper Collins, 1993).
d) Rogers, Mary Beth, Cold Anger : A Story of Faith and Power Politics, (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1990).
e) National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter of Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Catholic Conference, 1986).
f) Pierce, Gregory F. Augustine, Activism That Makes Sense: Congregations and Community Organization. Acta Publications. 1984.
a) MacLeod, Jay, Ain't' No Makin' It: Aspirations and Attainment in a Low Income Neighborhood, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995)
b) O'Connor, Thomas J.,Building a New Boston, (Northeastern, 1993).
c) Levine, Hillel, Death of An American Jewish Community: A Tragedy of Good Intentions, (NY: Free Press, 1992)
d) Lukas, J. Anthony, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families, (NY: Vintage Books, 1986)
e) Gans, Herbert, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian Americans, (New York: Free Press, 1982)
f) King, Mel, Chains of Change; (Boston: South End,1981).
a) Langer, Ellen J., The Power of Mindful Learning, (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1997).
b) Comparative Perspective on Social Movements, edited by Doug McAdam; John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.).
c) Social Movements and Culture, edited by Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995
d) Mondros, Jacqueline B. and Scott M. Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment; (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).
e) Gamson, William, The Strategy of Social Protest, (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990).
f) Gamson, William A., Bruce Fireman and Steven Rytina. Encounters with Unjust Authority. (Homewood, Il: The Dorsey Press, 1982)
1. Bobo, Kim, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. 1996. Seven Locks.
2. The Future is Ours: A Handbook for Students Activists in the 21st Century, edited by John W. Bartlett; Henry Holt & Co., 1996.
3. Pierce, Gregory F. Augustine, Activism That Makes Sense: Congregations and Community Organization. Acta Publications. 1984.
4. Kahn, Si. Organizing: A Guide for Grass Roots Leaders. McGraw-Hill. 1982
5. Industrial Areas Foundation Materials
6. AFL-CIO Organizing Institute Materials
7. Campaign Materials
1. Grapes of Wrath, Ford, 1940.
2. Meet John Doe, Capra, 1941
3. Salt of the Earth, Bibberman, 1953
4. The Organizer, Monicelli, 1963.
5. Encounter with Saul Alinsky, National Film Board of Canada, 1967
6. Saul Alinsky Went to War, National Film Board of Canada, 1968
7. Burn, Pontecorvo, 1969.
8. FIST, Jewison, 1978
9. Norma Rae, Ritt, 1979.
10. Northern Lights, Nillson, 1979
11. Gandhi, Attenborough, 1982
12. Revolution, Hudson, 1985
13. Eyes on the Prize, Blackside, 1986.
14. Matewan, Sayles, 1987.
15. Streets of Hope, Dudley Street, 1994.
16. Freedom on My Mind, Fields, 1994.
17. Il Postino, Radford, 1995.
18. The Fight in the Fields, Paradigm, 1997.