People, Power and Change
- Carlos Diaz
- Heather Harker
- Andrea Sheppard
1. Students base class work on volunteer service with an "organizing project" of their own choosing that should require an average of 6 hours per week. Students may initiate their own project or serve with one of a wide variety of community or campus organizations. They may continue a current project or begin a new one. Projects should be designed to achieve measurable outcomes by the end of the semester based on mobilizing the participation of others. To facilitate project design, teaching fellows will meet with students individually during the first week of class. Participation in a "skills session" is required on Saturday, February 12, from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM, to familiarize students with leadership tools that can help them in their projects.
2. In classes which meet for 1.5 hours, twice a week for thirteen weeks, students will use an organizing praxis drawn from lectures and reading to reflect critically on their experience and observations. Sessions alternate between discussion of new material and of student projects. Students are expected to attend all sessions, do the reading and take an active part in discussions.
3. Reading is assigned for only the first class meeting each week (except for the first and last weeks of the course), combines theory, practice, and history and averages about 125 pages per week. My notes on each week's topic are included to introduce the readings, explain the charts and provide a foundation for class discussion. An introductory paragraph to each of the week's readings helps focus attention and prioritize readings. Recommended readings are available for those who wish to pursue a topic more deeply and can be purchased as a separate reading packet. Mondros and Wilson provide particularly good summaries of the material we are covering from a community organizing perspective.
4. Beginning with the third week of class, students submit "reflection papers" of 1 to 2 pages in which they may use our praxis to interpret their organizing experience, our use their experience to evaluate our praxis. At the end of each week's readings questions are posed which may be useful in stimulating thinking about the project. After the first two reflection papers - which are required - any two may be missed with no excuse, but the rest must be turned in. Students will take turns initiating discussion each week.
5. At the end of the term students submit a 20 page final paper based on analysis of their organizing project. At midterm, in lieu of a response paper for the week of March 20, students will submit a 10 page written analysis of how well their project is "working," discussing why or why not. Course evaluation will be based on the student's demonstrated ability to analyze their own organizing project, using the organizing praxis as appropriate. Final grades are based on the following: class participation and weekly reflection (50%), midterm progress report (20%), final report (30%).
1. Introduction: Overview of Organizing (Week 1, 2/1) (94 pp.)
Welcome. Today we discuss the goals of the course, how they will be accomplished, what the requirements are, etc. We begin by looking at how organizing fits into the scheme of public life. "What is Organizing" summarizes the praxis of organizing we will use this semester. Aristotle, Bellah, De Tocqueville, the Catholic Bishops, Alinsky, and McKnight offer normative, sociological and historical views of social organization that informs our approach. Woliver provides a snapshot theoretical view of organizing while McKnight helps to distinguish organizing from social service. We will also distinguish among citizens, customers, and clients and constituency, market, and control organizations.a) Marshall Ganz, "What is Organizing", 2000. (T)
b) Aristotle, Politica, Book 1, Chapter 1-2 (pp.1127-1130). (T)
c) Robert Bellah, et al, The Good Society, "Introduction: We Live Through Institutions," (p.1-18) (T)
d) Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume II, Part II, Chapters 2-6, (pp. 506-517). (H/T)
e) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 1, (pp.3-23). (P)
f) National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter of Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, 1986 (pp.32-63) (H)
g) John McKnight, "Services are Bad for People," (pp.41-44). (T)
h) Laura R. Woliver, "Mobilizing and Sustaining Grassroots Dissent," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1996, (pp.139-51). (P)
i) Charts and Questions
2. Introduction: Organizing the Organizers (Week 1, 2/3) (113 pp.)
The success of this course depends on the participation of those who take part in it. Today we will learn about the resources each of us brings to this project, what our goals are for the semester, and how we can contribute to each other's learning. The readings introduce us to the "organizing tradition" within which are working and that we will discuss next week. And Keck and Sikkink focus on increasingly significant transnational organizing.a) The Bible, Exodus, Chapters 2-6, (pp.82-89). (H)
b) Robert Middlekauf, The Glorious Cause, Chapter 11, "Resolution," (pp.221-239). (H)
c) Theda Skocpol, "The Tocqueville Problem: Civic Engagement in American Democracy," in Social Science History, Vol. 4, No.4, Winter, 1997. (pp. 455-477). (H)
d) Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, Part I, (pp. 31-61). (H)
e) Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Chapter 1, Introduction (pp. 1-37).
3. Introduction: The Organizing Tradition (Week 2, 2/8) (139 pp)
What does the organizing tradition bring to the scheme of public life. The readings provide accounts of how people have organized to take action at different time and in different places, but in similar ways - and what they accomplished. Selections from Exodus, Tarrow, Middlekauf, Skocpol, and Dalton all tell us something of the organizing tradition - its sociological, historical, and normative background. Skim all of these readings to get a sense of the breadth of this tradition, while focusing on those of particular interest to you. The Montgomery bus boycott account is an usually complete view of how the organizing can work. The Globe articles report on recent organizing in Boston, the American Prospect piece on the Anti-Sweatshop Movement, and the New York Times piece on "living wage" campaigns.
a) Dennis Dalton, Gandhi, Chapter 4, "Civil Disobedience: The Salt Satyagraha" (pp.91 -138). (H)
b) Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, Chapter 5, "The Montgomery Bus Boycott," (p.143 -205) (H)
c) Boston Globe; Greater Boston Interfaith Organization articles; 1998-99; Selected.
d) Louis Uchitelle, "Minimum Wages, City by City; As More Local Laws Pass, More Businesses Complain"; New York Times, Friday, November 19, 1999.
e) Richard Applebaum, "The Campus Anti-Sweatshop Movement," The American Prospect; October, 1999. (pp.71-78)
f) OPTIONAL: Timothy Garton Ash, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity 1980-82, Introduction, Chapter 1 "Inside the Lenin Shipyard," (pp. 1-67). (H)
We turn now to methods of learning practice -- how to get the most out of your organizing project. Thich Nhat Hanh reflects on how theory can help us learn practice: as a way to ask key questions, focus on critical tools, and learn from one another's experience by speaking a common language. Fiske and Taylor provide an account of where assumptions come from can inhibit learning or facilitate it. Langer challenges us to engage critically with assumptions we bring to learning. And Merriam offers some practical tips on how to learn from this kind of experience, how to handle yourself, how to document what's going on, how to analyze what you've documented, and how to draw conclusions.
a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on the Practice of Organizing. 2000
b) Thich Nhat Hanh, Thundering Silence: Sutra on Knowing the Better Way to Catch a Snake, "The Raft is Not the Shore," (pp.30-33). (P)
c) Susan Fiske and Shelly E. Taylor, Social Cognition, Chapter 6, "Social Schemata," (pp.139-42, 171-81).
d) Ellen Langer, Mindfulness, Chapter 3, "The Roots of Mindlessness," (pp.19-35); Chapter 4, "The Costs of Mindlessness," (pp.43-55); Chapter 5, "The Nature of Mindfulness," (pp.61-77); Chapter 7, "Creative Uncertainty," (pp.115-129). (P)
e) Sharan Merriam, Case Study Research in Education, Chapter 6, "Being a Careful Observer", (pp.87-103); Chapter 8, "The Components of Data Analysis," (pp.123-146); Chapter 10, "Dealing with Validity, Reliability, and Ethics in Case Study Research," (pp. 163-184). (P)
f) Helpful Hint #1
g) Questions About Methodology
SKILLS SESSION (Week 2, 2/12)
A "skills session" required of students enrolled in PAL177 will be conducted on Saturday February 12 from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM. Attention will be given to basic leadership skills required to make an organizing project work - relationships, interpretation, and action.
We begin mapping the social world within which your project unfolds by asking who are the actors and what motivates their action. Actors we identify include a constituency, leadership, staff, governing body, allies, opposition, and mediators. We learn what motivates the action by asking what needs actors hope to satisfy, what values they honor in meeting these needs, and how they understand their interests. Atkinson and Alderfer offer ways to think of needs, Bruner locates sources of our values in culture, and Weber explains how these translate into interests. And D'Andrade integrates them. Walker explains why groups with common interests may not act upon them, while Alinsky challenges us to get to the bottom of our reactions to words like interest and power. Mondros and Wilson provide an overview of the "actors" typically involved in an organizing campaign.a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Actors, Values and Interests. 2000
b) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "A Word About Words," (pp.48 -62). (P)
c) Rita K. Atkinson, et al, Introduction to Psychology, Chapter 14, "Personality Theory and Assessment," (pp.522-26). (T)
d) Clayton Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness and Growth, Chapter 2, "Theory," (p. 6-13). (T)
e) Jerome Bruner, Acts of Meaning, excerpt, Chapter 1, "The Proper Study of Man," (pp.26-30). (T)
f) Max Weber, Economy and Society, Volume I, "Types of Social Action," (pp.24-26). (T)
g) Roy G. D'Andrade, Human Motives and Cultural Models, Chapter 2, "Schemas and Motivation," (pp. 23-44). (T)
h) Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, Chapter 3, "Explaining the Mobilization of Interests," (pp. 41-55). (T)
i) Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 1, "Social Action Organizations and Power," (pp. 1-10). (T)
j) Charts and Questions
ORGANIZING PROJECT REPORT DUE
Project Discussion: Interests (Week 3, 2/17)
First Required Reflection Paper Due: Actors and Interests Map
We turn now to how people acquire the power to act on their interests. The distribution of resources among actors relative to their interests defines their power relations with each other - independence, dependency and domination, or interdependence. What resources does your constituency require to act upon its interests? Who controls them? What are their interests? Emerson views power as relational, emergent from the interaction of interests and resources, an interaction Loomer and Miller argue can yield "power to" or "power over." Gaventa and Stone urge us to look for power relations below the surface while Thucydides' challenges us to think about the relationship between power and right. Mondros and Wilson describe one way community organizations mobilize power. Use the "four questions to track down the power" to map the power relations of the community in which your project is situated.a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Actors, Resources, Power 2000.
b) Richard Emerson, "Power-Dependence Relations", American Sociological Review, 27:31-40. (T)
c) Bernard M. Loomer, "Two Kinds of Power," The D.R. Sharpe Lecture on Social Ethics, October 29, 1975, Criterion, Vol. 15, No.1, 1976 (pp. 11-29). (T)
d) Jean Baker Miller, Women's Growth in Connection: Writings from the Stone Center, Chapter 11, "Women and Power," (pp.197-205). (T)
e) John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley, Introduction, (pp.1-32).
f) Clarence Stone, Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, Chapter 11 "Rethinking Community Power: Social Production vs. Social Control," (pp. 219-233). (T)
g) Thucydides, The Peloponessian Wars, Book V, Chapter 7, "The Sixteenth Year - the Melian Dialogue," (pp.400-408). (H)
h) Charts and Questions
Project Discussion: Power (Week 4, 2/24)
Second Required Reflection Paper Due: Actors and Power Map
Organizers mobilize communities by mobilizing leaders. Where do leaders come from, how are they identified, how are they recruited, how are they trained, what do they actually do? For Burns, leadership is a kind of relationship; for Heifetz, adaptive learning. Hackman and Walton describe exactly what leaders do with those with whom they work. The selections from Exodus and Numbers addresses the key issue in leadership development - delegation. Alinsky, Freeman, Robnett, and King challenge us to examine our assumptions about leadership - in order to be able lead more effectively.a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Leadership, 2000.
b) James McGregor Burns, Leadership, Chapter 1, "The Power of Leadership," (p.9-28). (T)
c) Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, "Values in Leadership," Chapter 1, (pp. 13-27). (T/P)
d) J. Richard Hackman and Richard E. Walton, Chapter 3, "Leading Groups in Organizations," in Designing Effective Work Groups, Paul Goodman (pp. 72-119). (T/P)
e) The Bible, Exodus, Chapter 18 (pp. 107-09); Numbers, Chapter 11 (pp. 216-19). (H)
f) Jo Freeman, "The Tyranny of Structurelessness," Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 1970, (pp.1-8). (P)
g) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 5, "Native Leadership," (pp.64-75). (P)
h) Dr. M.L. King, Jr. A Testament of Hope, "The Drum Major Instinct," (p.259-78). (H)
i) Charts and Questions
j) Helpful Hint #2
k) OPTIONAL: Belinda Robnett, "African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership and Micromobilization," American Journal of Sociology, Volume 101, Number 6 (May 1996), (pp.1661-93).
Project Discussion: Leadership (Week 5, 3/2)
Organizers build on relationships, understanding and resources drawn from the social world within which they work. Building the relationships that construct the "community of interest" that forms a constituency is basic. Through our relationships we come to understand our interests and develop the resources to act upon them. Blau, Granovetter, and Goffman offer three ways to look at relationships - as exchanges, as kinds of commitments, and as performances. Gladwell reminds us of the power of relational networks in every day life. Eccles and Nohria distinguish between interpersonal relationships and email exchanges. Putnam shows how relationships can become resources -- "social capital. " Rondeau, Levy, Rooney and Simmons describe how organizers do relational work. Bobo offers some hints on recruiting.a) Marshall Ganz, Notes on Relationships, 2000
b) Peter M. Blau, "Introduction," in Exchange and Power in Social Life, (pp.1-11). (T)
c) Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties," American Sociological Review, 78:6 (pp. 1360-78). (T)
d) Erving Goffman, "On face-work: an analysis of ritual elements in social interaction," in Interpersonal Dynamics, Bennis, et al. (pp. 175 - 189). (T)
e) Robert Eccles and Nitin Nohria, "Face to Face: Making Network Organizations Work," in Networks and Organizations, HBS, (pp. 288-308). (T)
f) Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work, "Social Capital and Institutional Success", Chapter 6, (p. 163-185). (T)
g) Malcolm Gladwell, "Six Degrees of Lois Weisberg," in The New Yorker, January 11, 1999 (pp. 52-63).
h) Kris Rondeau, "A Woman's Way of Organizing," Labor Research Review #18, (pp. 45-59). (H/P)
i) Jim Rooney, Organizing the South Bronx, Chapter 6, Relational Organizing: Launching South Bronx Churches, (pp. 105-18). (H)
j) Ian Simmons, "On One-to-Ones," in The Next Steps of Organizing: Putting Theory into Action, Sociology 91r Seminar, (pp. 12-15) 1998. (P)
k) Kim Bobo, et al, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 10, "Recruiting," (pp.78-85). (P)
l) Charts and Questions
Project Discussion: Relationships (Week 6, 3/9)
2. Mobilizing Understanding I: Motivation, Narrative, Celebration: Interpreting WHY(Week 7, 3/14) (163 p.)
Participants in community action organizations reinterpret their world as they change it. They interpret who they are, why they should act, and how they can act -- among themselves, within their constituency, to their opposition, and to the world. When we interpret why we should act -- motivation -- we often do it as narrative. When we interpret how we can act -- our strategy -- we often do it as deliberation. Because organizing is about social change, it often requires redefining the conceptual context within which we choose - reframing our feelings about things as well as our cognition of them. Snow uses schema theory to explain how organizers can "reframe" understanding. Jasper identifies the emotional center of mobilization, Peterson offers a schema to conceptualize how we manage emotions with stories and Gamson sketches "stories of hope" that move us to act, while Alinsky reminds us these stories grow out of community traditions - something Henry V does so well. Gamson also focuses on unique motivational hurdles in mobilizing for collective action which challenges authority. Reagan and Cuomo draw on distinct threads of the same tradition to tell contrasting stories about the US in the early 1980s. Chong, McKenny and King show how motivation worked in the civil rights and labor movements, reminding us that our motivation is grounded more in deeds than in words. Bobo offers hints on doing interpretive work through the media.
a) Marshall Ganz, Notes on Interpretation I: Motivation, 2000. (P)
b) David Snow, et al, "Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation," American Sociological Review, 51, August 1986. (pp. 464-81) (T).
c) Susan Fiske and Shelly E. Taylor, Social Cognition, Chapter 12, "Attitudes: Cognition and Persuasion," (pp. 340-2, 344-9, 352-55, 359-68). (T)
d) James M. Jasper, "The Emotions of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions In and Around Social Movements," Sociological Forum, Vol. 13, No.3, 1998, (pp. 397-421). (T)
e) Jordon Peterson, Narrative Chart, Figure 4, "Neuropsychology and Mythology of Motivation for Group Aggression," Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, Volume 2, 1999, (p. 542).
f) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 6, "Community Traditions and Organizations," (p.76-88). (P)
g) William Gamson, Talking Politics, "Collective Action Frames," (pp.6-8). (P)
h) Dennis Chong, Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement, Chapter 5, "Creating the Motivation to Participate in Collective Action," (pp. 90-102), Chapter 8, "Strategies of Collective Action," (pp. 173-85). (T/H)
i) William Shakespeare, Henry V, Act IV, Scene 3, "We Happy Few," (pp. 140 -149). (H)
j) Ruth McKenney, Industrial Valley, "The Beginning" (pp.25-32), "The First Sit Down," (pp. 251-270). (H)
k) Mario Cuomo, " Two Cities," Key note Address to Democratic National Convention, July 17, 1984, (11 pp.). (H)
l) Ronald Reagan, "First Inaugural Address," January 20, 1981, (7 pp.). (H)
m) Dr. M.L. King, "I Have A Dream," A Testament of Hope, (pp. 217-221). (P)
n) Charts and Questions
o) OPTIONAL: William Gamson, Encounters with Unjust Authority, Chapter 12, "The Theory and Practice of Rebellion," (pp. 147-155). (P)
Project Discussion: Motivation (Week 7, 3/16)
MIDTERM PROGRESS REPORT DUE FRIDAY, MARCH 17
3. Mobilizing Understanding II: Strategy, Deliberation, Meetings: Interpreting HOW (Week 8, 3/21) (147 pp.)
Strategy is how we turn what we have into what we need, how we mobilize resources to achieve goals. It is the cognitive work in organizing. The Book of Samuel tells a "classic" tale of strategic action - the story of David and Goliath. Mintzberg's view is drawn from business while Kahn's view comes from organizing. Alinsky and Bobo provide very concrete "how to's" for devising organizing strategy and tactics, while Gamson and Meyer remind us how important it is to learn to discern opportunities. Branch describes how Montgomery bus boycott strategists took on a national conflict locally, transforming their local struggle into one of national significance. We discuss how we strategize, differences between strategy and tactics, what makes us good strategists. We do the work of strategizing as a form of deliberation. DiMaggio explains how deliberative thinking works, Friere links it to "one-on-ones", and Bobo spells out how to make group deliberation work - holding good meetings.
a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Interpretation II: Strategy, 2000. (P)
b) Paul DiMaggio, "Institution and Agency" from "Culture and Cognition" in Annual Review of Sociology, 1997, (pp.268-72).
c) Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Chapter 2, (pp. 57-74). (T)
d) The Bible, Book of Samuel, Chapter 17, Verses 4-49. (H)
e) Henry Mintzberg, Crafting Strategy, Harvard Business Review, July, 1987, (pp.66-74). (T)
f) Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 8 "Strategy," (pp.155-174). (P)
g) Marshall Ganz. "Resources and Resourcefulness: Strategic Capacity in the Unionization of California Agriculture, 1959-1966", American Journal of Sociology, January 2000, (pp.1003-1062).
h) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 4 "Strategy" (pp.20- 33), Chapter 5, "A Guide to Tactics," (pp.34-42). (P)
i) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 12, "Planning and Facilitating Meetings," (pp.94-102). (P)
j) Charts and Questions
Helpful Hint #3
Project Discussion: Strategy (Week 8, 3/23)
Organizers mobilize and deploy resources to carry out action programs. Some mobilize resources internally, others, externally. Some programs focus on providing services to a constituency, while others focus on making claims on behalf of it. This week we explore where action programs come from, how they are put together, and how they are carried out. Levy, Alinsky and Bobo show how action programs can be formulated, while Sharp offers a "shopping list" of claims making action tactics. Oliver and Marwell point out the connection between how resources are mobilized and how they can be deployed. The "Orange Hats" and Rogers provide examples of different kind of action programs, one focused on self-help and the other on making claims. Schlozman documents the different kinds of action which interest groups take.a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Action, 2000.
b) Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez, Prologue, (pp. xxi-xxv). (H)
c) Pamela Oliver and Gerald Marwell, "Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action," Chapter 11, (pp 251-270), in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Morris and Mueller. (T)
d) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 4, "The Program," (pp. 53-64.) (P)
e) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Tactics, (p. 126-36, 148-55, 158-61). (P)
f) Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part Two: The Methods of Nonviolent Action, Political Jiu-Jitsu at Work; Table of Contents, (pp. xii-xvi). (P)
g) Kennedy School Case C16-91-1034, "Orange Hats of Fairlawn: A Washington DC Neighborhood Battles Drugs," (pp.1-18). (H)
h) Mary Beth Rogers, Cold Anger, Chapter 11, "Leave Them Alone. They're Mexicans," (pp. 105-126). (H)
i) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 7, "Designing Actions," (pp.48 -54), Chapter 20, "Grassroots Fundraising," (pp. 176-182). (P)
j) Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 14, "Using the Media," (pp.116-123). (P)
k) Charts and Questions
l) OPTIONAL: Jennifer Gordon, "We Make the Road by Walking: Immigrant Workers, the Workplace Project, and the Struggle for Social Change," Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol.30, #2, Summer, 1995, (pp. 407-450). (H)
Project Discussion: Action (Week 9, 4/6)
Organizers carry out programs as campaigns - a rhythm of activity which focuses on a specific goal, begins slowly building a foundation, gradually gathers momentum and resources, and culminates in a peak when the campaign is won or lost. Gersick explains the "rhythms" of organizational change. Sitkin points out the value of designing a stream of organizational activity for "intelligent" early failures. Mandela, Chen, Medoff and Sklar, and Greenhouse describe campaigns conducted in very different settings, but with common characteristics. The "campaign planning packet" are materials actually used in the organization of statewide grassroots electoral campaigns in California. Does your organization conduct campaigns? Do the campaigns strengthen the organization? How do you know if you are winning or losing? Does it matter? Why? Why not?a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Campaigns, 2000.
b) Connie Gersick, "Pacing Strategic Change: The Case of a New Venture," Academy of Management Journal, February 1994 (pp. 1-4, 16-20).
c) Sim Sitkin, "Learning Through Failure: The Strategy of Small Losses", Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.14, 1992, (pp. 231-261).
d) Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, Chapter 14 (pp. 140-161). (H)
e) Martha Chen, "Engendering World Conferences: the International Women's Movement and the United Nations", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1995, (pp. 477-491).
f) Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope, Chapter 3, "Don't Dump On Us: Organizing the Neighborhood," (pp.67-89). (H)
g) Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa, Book IV, Book V, "Victory in the Vineyards," Chapters 6-14, (pp.263-325). (H)
h) Steven Greenhouse, "Yearlong Effort Key to Success for Teamsters," New York Times, August 25, 1997. (H)
i) Marshall Ganz. Campaign Planning Packet. (P)
j) Charts and Questions.
Project Discussion: Campaigns (Week 10, 4/13)
Mobilized communities are structured as organizations. Structuring an organization means facing dilemmas of how to balance unity and diversity, inclusion and exclusion, responsibility and participation, leadership and accountability. Kahn focuses on the nuts and bolts of an effective organization. Although Moreland's approach is more theoretical, he also discusses the specifics of how to enable a group to work together successfully. Smith and Berg identify the dilemmas which must be managed within any organization while Janis points to the danger "too much" unity can suppress needed dissent.a) Marshall Ganz. Notes on Organizations, 2000.
b) Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 3, "Organizations," (pp. 55-77). (P)
c) Richard L. Moreland, "The Formation of Small Groups", in Kendrick, C. (ed.) (1987), Group Processes, (pp. 80-105). (T/P)
d) Kenwyn Smith and David Berg, "A Paradoxical Conception of Group Dynamics", Human Relations, V40:10, 1987, (pp. 633-58) (T)
e) Irving Janis, "Groupthink", in Hackman, J.R. (1983), Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, (pp. 378-384) (T).
f) J. Richard Hackman, "A General Model of Group Development," (1 page chart) (T/P).
g) Charts and Questions
Project Discussion: Communities in Action (Week 11, 4/20)
This week we reflect on organizing as a craft, art, profession, and vocation: why do we do it, what makes us good at it, what about the rest of our lives, how can we continue to grow as we do it? Heifetz reflects on the challenges of accepting responsibility for leadership and Langer reflects on how we might do our work "mindfully" -- while Addams, Levy (Chavez), Alinsky and Mandela describe how they came to terms with these challenges. Coles and Wuthnow discusses personal and political consequences of responding to the "call to service."
a) Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, Chapter 11, "The Personal Challenge," (pp. 250-276). (P)
b) Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House, Chapters 4-5, (pp. 60-89). (P)
c) Jacques Levy; Cesar Chavez; Book II, Chapter 11 (pp.89-93), Book III, Prologue, Chapter 1-3 (pp.95-114). (P)
d) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "The Education of the Organizer," (p.63-80). (P)
e) Nelson Mandela, 1994 Inaugural Speech, Excerpt.
f) Robert Wuthnow, Acts of Compassion., Chapter 9, "Envisioning a Better Society," (pp.249-81). (H)
g) Robert Coles, The Call to Service, Chapter 8, "Consequences," (pp. 254-84). (P)
h) Langer, Chapter 8, "Mindfulness on the Job," (pp.133-148). (P)
i) OPTIONAL: Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 2, "The Organizers," (pp.11-35). (P)
Project Discussion: Becoming a Good Organizer (Week 12, 4/27)
How do these lessons link up with the broader question of the role of organizing in public life? The readings this week begin with Alinsky's call for broader participation in democratic governance which remains timely although it was written in 1946. From a more current perspective, Putnam, Skocpol, Grieder, Weir, and Ganz all argue a need for greater participation again today. Reed and Cortes describe different ways of organizing participation in recent years, while Judis describes a world of advocacy politics without broad participation.
III. RESOURCESa) Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 11 (p. 190-204) (P).
b) Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone:Democracy in America and the End of the 20th Century," 1994m (pp. 18-33). (H)
c) Theda Skocpol, "Unraveling From Above," The American Prospect, March, 1996 (pp. 20-25). (H)
d) Margaret Weir and Marshall Ganz, "Reconnecting People and Politics," The New Majority: Toward a Popular Progressive Politics, (pp. 149-171). (H)
e) Ralph Reed, Politically Incorrect, Chapter 13, "Miracle at the Grassroots," (pp. 189-202); Chapter 17, "What is Right about America: How You Can Make a Difference," (pp.249-268). (H).
f) William Grieder; Who will tell the People?, Chapter 10, "Democratic Promise," (p. 222-241). (H)
g) Ernesto Cortes, "Reweaving the Fabric: The Iron Rule and the IAF Strategy for Dealing with Poverty Through Power and Politics," IAF, (pp 1-31). (H)
h) John B. Judis, "The Pressure Elite: Inside the Narrow World of Advocacy Group Politics," The American Prospect, #9, Spring 1992, (pp. 15-29). (H)
Conclusion (Week 13, 5/4)
Today we'll hear from everyone about what they have learned from the various projects in which they have been involved? What have we learned about ourselves as observers? What have we learned about organizing and the "big picture", how well did we meet goals we established at the beginning of the semester?
1. Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Vintage, 1960.B. Recommended Reading
2. Langer, Ellen J., Mindfulness, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1990.
3. Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Random House, 1971.
4. Kim Bobo, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s, 1991, Seven Locks.
5. CMO PAL-177 Reader.
1. Jacqueline B. Mondros and Scott M. Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
C. Lifetime Reading
- 1. International
- a) Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics : Solidarity Beyond the State (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution), ed. Jackie Smith, Charles Chatfield, Ron Pagnucco (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1997).
- b) Bringing Transnational Relations Back in : Non-State Actors,Domestic Structures and International Institutions, (Cambridge Studies in International Relations), ed. Thomas Risse-Kappen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
- c) Kreisi, Hanspter, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Dyvendak, and Marco G. Giugni, New Social Movements in Western Europe, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).
- d) Margarita Lopa, Singing the Same Song: Reflections of Two Generations of NGO Workers in the Philippines.
- e) Mandela, Nelson; Long Walk to Freedom: An Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, (London, Abacus, 1994).
- f) Dalton, Dennis; Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action, (New York: Columbia, 1993).
- g) Laba, Roman, The Roots of Solidarity: A Political Sociology of Poland's Working Class Democratization, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991)
- h) Goodwyn, Lawrence; Breaking the Barrier: The Rise of Solidarity in Poland, (New York: Oxford University Press,1991).
- i) Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts; (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
- j) Ash, Timothy Garton, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity 1980-82, (London, Jonathan Cape, 1983).
- k) Gandhi, Mahatma, Autobiography; (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957).
- 2. Labor Movement/Populism
- a) Organizing to Win: New Research on Union Strategies, ed. Kate Bronfenbrenner, Sheldon Friedman, Richard W. Hurd, Rudolph A. Oswald, and Ronald L. Seeber. (Ithica: ILR Press, 1998)
- b) Zieger, Robert, The CIO, 1935-1955. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995).
- c) Geoghegan, Thomas, Which Side Are You On?: Trying to Be For Labor When It's Flat on It's Back. (Plume, 1991)
- d) Cohen, Lizabeth, Making a New Deal, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
- e) Goodwyn, Lawrence, The Populist Moment, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).
- f) Dubovsky, Melvyn and Warren Van Tine, John L. Lewis, A Biography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977).
- g) Steinbeck, John, In Dubious Battle, (Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 1937).
- h) McKenny, Ruth, Industrial Valley, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1939 ).
- 3. Civil Rights Movements
- a) Branch, Taylor, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65, (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1999)
- b) Halberstam, David, The Children (New York: Random House, 1998)
- c) Lewis, John, Walking With the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1998)
- d) Dittmer, John, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi, (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995).
- e) Payne, Charles, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
- f) Skerry, Peter, Mexican Americans: the Ambivalent Minority, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).
- g) Takaki, Ronald, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans; (New York: Penguin, 1989).
- h) Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988).
- i) Morris, Aldon, Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change; (New York: Free Press, 1984).
- j) McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1980 (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1982)
- 4. Political Movements
- a) Civic Engagement in American Democracy, eds. Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina, (DC: Russel Sage, 1999).
- b) Clemens, Elisabeth, The People's Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest Group Politics in the United States, 1890-1925 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
- c) Reed, Ralph, Politically Incorrect: The Emerging Faith Factor in American Politics, (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1994).
- d) Hertzke, Alan, Echoes of Discontent, (Washington: CQ Press, 1993).
- e) Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties; (New York: Bantam Books, 1989)
- f) Klatch, Rebecca E., Women of the New Right, (Temple, 1987.)
- g) Crawford, Alan, Thunder on the Right, (Pantheon, 1980).
- 5. Women's Movements
- a) Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod, Faithful and Fearless: Moving Feminist Protest inside the Church and Military; (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).
- b) Feree, Myra Max, Controversy and Coalition: New Feminist Movement (New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994).
- c) Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod and Carol McClurg Mueller, The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe , (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987).
- d) Mansbridge, Jane, Why We Lost the ERA, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).
- e) Luker, Kristin, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).
- f) Gelb, Joyce and Marian Lief Palley, Women and Public Policies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982).
- g) Evans, Sara, Personal Politics (New York: Vintage, 1980).
- 6. Environmental Movement
- a) Dowie, Mark,Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the 20th Century; (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1995).
- b) Dunlap, Riley and Angela G. Mertig, American Environmentalism: the U.S. Environmental Movement, 1970-1990; (Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1992).
- 7. Neighborhood Organizing
- a) Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope (Boston: South End Press, 1994)
- b) Fisher, Robert, Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America; (New York: Macmillan, 1994).
- c) Horwitt, Sanford, Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky; (New York: Knopf, 1989).
- 8. Faith Based Organizing
- a) Rooney, Jim, Organizing the South Bronx (New York: State University of New York, 1995).
- b) Robinson, Buddy and Mark G. Hanna, "Lessons for Academics from Community Organizing: A Case Study - The Industrial Areas Foundation" in Journal of Community Practice, Volume 1(4), 1994, (pp.63-94).
- c) Freedman, Samuel G, Upon this Rock: The Miracles of a Black Church; (New York: Harper Collins, 1993).
- d) Rogers, Mary Beth, Cold Anger : A Story of Faith and Power Politics, (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1990).
- e) National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter of Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Catholic Conference, 1986).
- f) Pierce, Gregory F. Augustine, Activism That Makes Sense: Congregations and Community Organization. Acta Publications. 1984.
- 9. Books About Boston
- a) MacLeod, Jay, Ain't' No Makin' It: Aspirations and Attainment in a Low Income Neighborhood, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995)
- b) O'Connor, Thomas J.,Building a New Boston, (Northeastern, 1993).
- c) Levine, Hillel, Death of An American Jewish Community: A Tragedy of Good Intentions, (NY: Free Press, 1992)
- d) Lukas, J. Anthony, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families, (NY: Vintage Books, 1986)
- e) Gans, Herbert, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian Americans, (New York: Free Press, 1982)
- f) King, Mel, Chains of Change; (Boston: South End,1981).
- 10. Organizing in General
- a) Langer, Ellen J., The Power of Mindful Learning, (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1997).
- b) Comparative Perspective on Social Movements, edited by Doug McAdam; John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.).
- c) Social Movements and Culture, edited by Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995
- d) Mondros, Jacqueline B. and Scott M. Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment; (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).
- e) Gamson, William, The Strategy of Social Protest, (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990).
- f) Gamson, William A., Bruce Fireman and Steven Rytina. Encounters with Unjust Authority. (Homewood, Il: The Dorsey Press, 1982)
- 1. Bobo, Kim, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. 1996. Seven Locks.
- 2. The Future is Ours: A Handbook for Students Activists in the 21st Century, edited by John W. Bartlett; Henry Holt & Co., 1996.
- 3. Pierce, Gregory F. Augustine, Activism That Makes Sense: Congregations and Community Organization. Acta Publications. 1984.
- 4. Kahn, Si. Organizing: A Guide for Grass Roots Leaders. McGraw-Hill. 1982
- 5. Industrial Areas Foundation Materials
- 6. AFL-CIO Organizing Institute Materials
- 7. Campaign Materials
- 1. Grapes of Wrath, Ford, 1940.
- 2. Meet John Doe, Capra, 1941
- 3. Salt of the Earth, Bibberman, 1953
- 4. The Organizer, Monicelli, 1963.
- 5. Encounter with Saul Alinsky, National Film Board of Canada, 1967
- 6. Saul Alinsky Went to War, National Film Board of Canada, 1968
- 7. Burn, Pontecorvo, 1969.
- 8. FIST, Jewison, 1978
- 9. Norma Rae, Ritt, 1979.
- 10. Northern Lights, Nillson, 1979
- 11. Gandhi, Attenborough, 1982
- 12. Revolution, Hudson, 1985
- 13. Eyes on the Prize, Blackside, 1986.
- 14. Matewan, Sayles, 1987.
- 15. Streets of Hope, Dudley Street, 1994.
- 16. Freedom on My Mind, Fields, 1994.
- 17. Il Postino, Radford, 1995.
- 18. The Fight in the Fields, Paradigm, 1997.