The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

School of Social Work

Course Number/Title:  


Semester/Year/Day/Time:  Fall, 2001: Tuesday, 6-8:50 pm
Dorothy "Dee" Gamble
Tel. (w), 962-1225; (h) 929-7698
Office: 370 G, Tate-Turner-Kuralt Bldg.
Office Hours:

Usually Monday and Friday afternoons, however it is important to call for an appointment.


A. COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course examines the role of grassroots organization in advocacy, self help and social development; the involvement of citizens in public and nonprofit planning; and the development of volunteer programs.

B. COURSE OBJECTIVES: At the termination of the course, students should be able to:

  1. Describe philosophical perspectives, value orientations (including the NASW Code of Ethics), and theoretical understandings regarding citizen involvement in public and voluntary community development activities.
  2. Identify and analyze the degree to which local public and voluntary programs currently involve citizens in their plans and policy-making.
  3. Identify, practice, and evaluate methods and techniques for involving diverse populations in community planning and change.
  4. Describe the role of voluntarism in citizen participation, and examine the effective integration of volunteers in service organizations.
  5. Describe their personal philosophy, including ethical principles, for effectively facilitating citizen involvement in social planning and economic development.
  6. Demonstrate personal skills as facilitators of citizen participation and volunteer involvement with a focus on supporting diversity and enabling members from all sectors of the community to participate in its positive development.


 The two books are available at the Health Sciences Bookstore. Several required readings can be found in the Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition, available in the Reading Room of the TateTurnerKuralt Building. The remaining supplemental reading materials that are required have been placed on e-reserve and are available at Some additional material will be given to you as handouts in the class prior to the material being assigned.

Couto, R. A. (1999). Making democracy work better. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Homan, M. S. (1999). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

Required readings are designated in each unit by the use of an asterisk *. Some materials will be given to you as hand-outs and will be marked in the unit with an asterisk in parentheses (*). The calendar at the end of the syllabus lets you know the general emphasis planned for each class date. Please read the articles/chapters with the asterisk by the date assigned to a particular unit. Each unit lists relevant literature beyond that which is required. Hopefully this will help you search in new directions for literature of particular interest to you.


Readings and discussion will focus on the current methods for involving citizens in public and voluntary organizations and the philosophy and values that guide those methods. Students analyze and practice methods and techniques for developing the capacity of people to be involved in decisions that affect their lives, especially for people most often excluded in such decisions. The course also examines volunteer involvement in both nonprofit and public organizations with emphasis on how such programs are developed. Examples are drawn from local, national and international experiences.

The class format will include readings, lectures, videos, discussions, class exercises, outside speakers, and field experiences. Independent community research will be necessary in order to collect information for your case study assignment. Class members will be working in teams for the case study so that team meetings will be necessary outside regularly scheduled class.

We will work together to foster a supportive learning environment that encourages critical thinking by being able to appreciate points of view different from our own, working to clearly articulate our own views, and linking experiences to readings and assignments.

Students with disabilities that affect their participation in the course may notify the instructor if they wish to have special accommodations considered.


Three written assignments and a class presentation are required for this class. There are no exams.

You are expected to apply concepts from the literature listed in this syllabus or from literature you have explored beyond this syllabus in all three written assignments. Application of the literature should demonstrate your understanding and critique of theories and concepts that help us understand and explain community participation issues.

Please refer to the APA Style Guide and the SSW Writing Guide for information on attribution of quotes, plagiarism, and appropriate use of assistance in preparing assignments. Students from outside the School will be given a copy of the SSW Writing Guide which has a summary of the APA style guide as well as updated material on citing sources from the Internet, and appropriate use of language to avoid discriminatory writing. Students are expected to abide by the University Honor Code in not giving or receiving unauthorized aid in preparing their written work.

There are rich resources available on this campus in print material located in the various libraries. There are also lots of resources available on the Internet. Please judge the Internet material carefully. Your bibliography for any of the three papers should contain no more than one third of its citations from Internet sources that are not generally recognized journals or official reports. The three written assignments and the presentation are described below.

1. Speak Out On Poverty or Racism

By the middle of the semester students will have completed one of the following three activities in an effort to inform the public or a policy making body about the effects of poverty or racism in our society.

  1. present a statement concerning poverty or racism and its effects at a municipal, county or state public hearing,
  2. write a "letter to the editor" (local, state or national) concerning poverty or racism and its effects, OR,
  3. present a radio or TV editorial informing the public of poverty or racism and its effects.

Your statement should shed "light" rather than" heat" on the issue and should be shared with the class, (share the published version if it gets published). In conjunction with this activity a short paper (2-4 pages) will be due that analyzes the effect of your "speak out" on you and the effect it had, or you think it would have, on the public. Your analysis should demonstrate some knowledge of the medium (public hearing, newspaper, radio etc. ) you selected to carry your statement. For example, in writing a letter you should know how many papers are published and where the paper circulates. Who listens to the particular radio or television station you have chosen for airing your views? How important is the public hearing to the policy makers who schedule it? Apply the literature required for the class or other relevant literature in your two-four-page analysis. Homan's Chapter 11 may help get you started.

Due Date: You may complete this assignment at any time, but please complete it no later than October 23

2. Facilitation and analysis of organizational/community development exercise.

Students will have the opportunity to facilitate one of three class exercises. Each team of facilitators will work with the instructor prior to the class exercise. The teams will carryout the exercise during a class period. Following the class each individual in the team will write a three-to-four page analysis that discusses:

  1. How effective is the exercise as a stimulus for participation?
  2. What are the potential implications that race, class, culture and gender have on the group process for this exercise?
  3. What are the aspects of the exercise that facilitate appreciation of diverse perspectives?
  4. What are the aspects of the exercise that transcend diversity?
  5. What potential modifications can you envision for different uses.

 Application of literature we are using in class, or other relevant literature, should be evident in the paper.

Due Date: Please complete the written assignment one week after your team facilitates the exercise.

3. Write a Case Study that describes and analyses the extent of, and potential for, citizen participation in a public and/or voluntary community organizations. The organizations we select have evolved for the purpose of mitigating adverse social and/or economic conditions. These adverse social and economic conditions prevent the healthy development of individuals, families, organizations and communities--the building blocks of any society. The organizations we will work with have given prior approval for us to extend the classroom to the community. We are guests in their organization and community. There is a requirement for each team to negotiate some contribution to the organization as repayment that is described in part "g" below. (This assignment may be modified depending upon the opportunities that present themselves each semester for class involvement, and the particular needs of students and community groups.)

Students will work in teams of two -three to develop the "Case Study." Each case study will examine a community organization that is government initiated (e.g. Commission for Women, county social services board, etc.), grassroots/citizen initiated (e.g. North Carolinians Against Racist and Religious Violence, Alliance for Economic Justice, etc.), or a combination government/private organization (e.g. Partnership for Young Children), that has evolved in response to adverse social or economic conditions. The case study should:

  1. describe the goals of the organization to improve the economic and social well being of community citizens;
  2. identify the citizen groups that would be stakeholders in these goals, and analyze the extent of citizen participation each stakeholder group has in the organization;
  3. describe and analyze the efforts of the organization to increase the capacity of people who are affected by adverse conditions to become involved in doing something about the conditions;
  4. describe lessons your group learned about citizen participation/volunteer involvement from your observations and analysis of the organization (leadership, membership, resources, environmental context, organizational structures, etc.) and from your reading;
  5. develop some proposals for ways to strengthen citizen involvement, especially ways to facilitate diversity in the organization, and ways to facilitate the capacity of the members to build an open, sustainable organization; and,
  6. cite specific theories or concepts relevant to citizen/volunteer involvement that were useful in your analysis and suggestions.
  7. Finally, describe what your group did for the organization to repay them for allowing you to engage in learning with them, (helped with a fund-raiser or annual meeting, collected material for their use, provided facilitation skills for a meeting, etc.).

An outline of the Case Study will be due October 9. The outline should contain your teams major points of inquiry, the methods you are using to collect the data about the organization, some listing of the literature that is guiding your observation and analysis, and the role each team member is playing in the development of the Case Study.

Each team will present the results of their findings in the last several class periods (November 13, 20 and 27). Representatives from the host organizations will be invited to join us during the team presentations. Generally your report should be planned for nor longer than 15-20 minutes. Plan to use visual material, handouts, maps, charts, etc. to quickly and graphically convey your understandings and perspectives. The report will be followed by 10-15 minutes of discussion and questions.

The written Case Study will be due on December 4, it should be about twenty pages double spaced. Use the APA style guide for citations. You may attach any graphic material as addenda to clarify your perspectives. Some case studies prepared in this and previous classes may be included in future publications. No material will be put forward for publication by faculty without your review and your name.


"Speak Out On Poverty or Racism" and paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20%
Analysis of Organizational/Community Development Exercise . . . 20%
Outline of Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pass or Revise
Case Presentation (Team Grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20%
Case Study (Team Grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30%
Participation in Class Discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l0%

Total          100%

The School of Social Work uses the following grading system: 94-100 = H; 80-93 = P; 70-79 = L; and 69 and below = F.

FIRST CLASS: August 21, Introductions, Course Plan, Cardstorming exercise

UNIT I. Citizen Participation Defined: August 28

  1. Assumptions about this content:
  1. Participation is good for the individual, for the community, and for democracy.
  2. The local community is the most reasonable arena in which the citizen and the social worker (planner, health educator, public administrator, etc.) can engage to promote well-being and prevent social ills.
  3. "Community-based organizations [are] agents of the democratic prospect [for] increased communal bonds and social and economic equality." (Couto, R.A. 1999. Making democracy work better. Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Press).
  4. "One of the essential characteristics of a competent community is that it can act effectively for the benefit of its members." (Fellin, P. 1995.The Community and the Social Worker, Second Edition. Itasca, Ill.: F. E. Peacock).
  5. Public employees and elected officials often fail to make space and opportunities for citizen involvement because they do not have the knowledge and skills to make it happen.
  1. Types of participation in the U.S.
  2. The division of literature between citizen participation and volunteer involvement.
  3. Poverty and Racism as barriers to community participation. Violence as a barrier to community development.
  4. Social Work's ethical responsibility to facilitate public participation (Code of Ethics VI: 6.02)


Adams, F. (1975).Unearthing seeds of fire: The idea of highlander . Winston-Salem: John Blair Publishers.
(*) Arnstein, S. (1971). Eight Rungs on the ladder of citizen participation. In E. S. Cahn and B. A. Passett, (eds.), Citizen participation: Effecting community change, (pp. 69-9l). N.Y.:Prager Publishers. Also, as excerpted in Dale, D.(1978). How to make citizen involvement work. (pp. 11-13). Amherst, MA.:U. of Mass.
(*) The Aspen Institute. (1996). Measuring community capacity building: A workbook-in-progress for rural communities. Version 3/96. Queenstown, MD : The Aspen Institute
Bellah, R. et. al. Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life, (l985), Chapter 7, Getting Involved, and Chapter 8, Citizenship. Berkeley, CA: U. Of California Press.
Berry, J. M., Portney, K.E. & Thomson, K. (1993). The Rebirth of urban democracy, (Intro and part I - pp. 1-98).Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.
Berry, W. (1990). What are people for? San Francisco: North Point Press.
Cooney, R. & Michalowski, H. (1986). The power of the people: Active nonviolence in the United States;. Philadelphia: Life Center Assoc., New Society Publishers.
* Couto, R.A. (1999). Making democracy work better. Part I - Social Capital and Democratic Theory (pp. 7-74).
Chapter 1 - Social Capital and Appalachia
Chapter 2 - Mediating Structures and the Democratic Prospect
Coontz, S. (1992). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. Basic Books.
Dale, D. (1978). How to Make Citizen Involvement Work: Strategies for Developing Clout. Amherst: University of Mass., Citizen Involvement Training Project.
Edin, K. & Jencks, C. (1993). Welfare. In Jencks, C., Rethinking social policy: Race, poverty and the underclass. (pp. 204-235). N.Y., N.Y.: Harper-Colling Pub.
Fellin, P. (1995). The Community and the social worker.(especially Chapter 4, The social stratification of communities: Class, race and ethnicity, pp. 58-76). Itasca, Il.: F. E. Peacock.
* Gamble, D. N. and Weil, M. O. (1995). Citizen Participation. In R. L. Edwards, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition (pp. 483-494). Washington D. C.: National Association of Social Workers.
* Homan, M. (1999). Promoting community change. Chapters 1-4, pp. 1-78.
Ch. 1, Understanding the Challenge to Change
Ch. 2, A Framework for Action
Ch. 3, Relating Community Change to Professional Practice
Ch. 4, Putting yourself in the Picture
Johnson, J. H., Jr. (1996). The real issues for reducing poverty. In M. R. Darby, Reducing poverty in America: Views and approaches. (pp. 337-363). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publications.
Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 51(2), Summer 2001. Issue topic: "Listening to the voices of poor women".
Kaner, S. (1996). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making. Gabriola Is., BC, Canada: New Society Publishers. (pp. vii-xvi).
Karger, H.J. & Stoesz, D. (1998). Poverty in America, in American Social Welfare Policy, 3rd Edition (Chapter 5, pp. 122-155). New York: Longman
Martinez-Brawley, E. E. (1995). Community. In Richard L. Edwards, Editor-in-Chief, Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition (pp. 539-548). Washington D. C.: National Association of Social Workers.
(*) NASW, (1996). Code of Ethics. Washington DC: NASW.
* Ozawa, M.N. (1999). The economic well-being of elderly people and children in a changing society. Social Work, 44(1), pp. 9-19.
Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 65-73.
Rank, M.R. & Hirschl, T.A. (1999). The likelihood of poverty across the American adult life span. Social Work, 44(3), pp. 201-216.

Unit II, The Role of "Participation Professionals": September 4

  1. Who are the "participation professionals"? Who and what guides and sanctions their behavior? How can these people be barriers to, or facilitators of, citizen participation?
  1. Social Administrators, Agency Directors
  2. Physical and social planners, program planners, managers
  3. Public Affairs representatives
  4. Volunteer Coordinators
  5. Community Educators
  6. Program coordinators (intra- and inter-organizational)
  7. Community Liaisons
  8. Human Service Providers
  1. What can be changed to facilitate people's involvement in decisions that affect their lives? (D. Schler's conceptualization)
  1. Intrapshychic (personal) change : learning to think about and express feelings
  2. Interpersonal, and personal skills: developing personal capacities
  3. Intragroup, group dynamics, group leadership and group goal setting skills
  4. Inter-organizational, organizational skills: broadening scope of concern, networking
  5. Increased skills for individuals/group members to identify and use communication technologies and other resources
  6. New ways of thinking, to modify and create institutions that are more responsive to community members
  1. Paulo Freire - Critical Consciousness (Conscientization) and popular education.
  2. Rothman's Three Models of Community Organization Practice, Revised
  1. Locality Development
  2. Social Planning
  3. Social Action
  4. Social Advocacy from an earlier set of approaches.
  1. Weil and Gamble's models, and their application to gender, race, ethnicity, and class.
  1. Neighborhood/community organizing
  2. Organizing Functional Communities
  3. Community Social and Economic Development
  4. Social Planning
  5. Program Development and Community Liaison
  6. Political and Social Action
  7. Coalitions
  8. Social Movements


Biddle, Wm. & Biddle, L. (1979). Intentions and outcomes. In F. Cox, et. al., (eds.), Strategies of community organization. Itasca, Ill.:Peacock Publishers.
Bryson, J. M. & Crosby, B.C. (1992). Leadership for the common good.
(Chapter 2, "Leadership Tasks in a Shared-Power World," pp. 31-56). San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass Pub.
Cary, L. J. (ed.)., (1970). Community development as a process. Columbia,
MO: University of Missouri Press.
Christenson, J. A. & Robinson, Jr., J.W. (1989). Community development in perspective. (Chapters 1-6, pp. 1-135). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
Ewalt, P. L., Freeman, E. M., & Poole, D. L. (Eds.). (1998). Community building: Renewal, well-being and shared responsibility. Washington DC: NASW Press
Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Penguin Books.
Hess, R. & Wandersman, A. (1985). What can we learn from Love Canal: A Conversation with Lois Gibbs and Richard Valinsky. In Wandersman and Hess, (eds.), Beyond the individual: Environmental approaches and prevention. (pp. 111-123). New York :Haworth Press.
* Homan, Mark. (1999). Promoting Community Change. Chapters 5-9, pp.79-204,
Ch. 5, Using Information and Communication Technology
Ch. 6, Knowing Your Community
Ch. 7, Power
Ch. 8, Powerful Planning
Ch. 9, People- The Most Valuable Resource.
Horton, M. & Freire, P.; Bell, B., Gaventa, J., & Peters, J., (Eds.). 1990.
We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change.
(Educational Practice, pp. 145-163). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Jansson, B. S. (1988). The Reluctant Welfare State. (Chapter 13, Taking Sides, pp. 248-262).Belmont, Calif.: Wadworth Publishing Co.
* Kahn, S. (1991). Organizing: A guide for grassroots leaders, Revised Edition. (Leadership, pp. 21-49).Washington D.C.: NASW.
Kaner, S. (1996). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making. Gabriola Is., BC, Canada: New Society Publishers. ( especially pp. 3-37)
Loewenberg, F.M., Dolgoff, R. & Harrington, D. (2000). Ethical decisions for social work practice. Sixth Edition. Itasca, Il.: F.E.Peacock
Rapp, D. W. (1982). Ideology as an aspect of community organization and advocacy. Social Development Issues, 6:l, pp. 53-6l.
(*) Rothman, J. (1995). Approaches to community intervention. In J. Rothman, J. L. Erlich & J. E. Tropman. Strategies of Community Intervention, Fifth Edition. (pp. 26-63). Itasca, Ill.: Peacock Publishers. Models will be distributed in class.
(*) Schler, D. (1970). The Community development process, in Cary, L. J. (Ed.) Community development as a process (pp.ll3-l40). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. The outline for Schler's chapter will be distributed as a handout.
Taylor, S. H & Roberts, R.W. (1985). Theory and practice of community social work. N.Y.:Columbia University Press.
Weil, M.(1986). Women, community, and organizing. In, N. Van Den Bergh & L. B. Cooper, (eds.) Feminist visions for social work. Silver Springs, MD.: NASW. pp. 187-210.
Weil, M. O. & Gamble, D.N. (1995). Community practice models. In Richard L. Edwards, Editor-in-Chief. Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition., (pp. 577-594).Washington D. C.: NASW.
* Weil, M., Gamble, D. N. & Williams, E. S. (1998). Women, communities, and development. In J. Figueira-McDonough, F. E. Netting, & A. Nichols-Casebolt, (Eds.), The Role of gender in practice knowledge: Claiming half the human experience, (pp. 241-286). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Unit III, Methods and Techniques for Promoting Participation: September 11 & 18

Thomas Watson, MSW, from the Center for Participatory Change, Asheville, NC, will be with us on September 11.

Some tools and methods to consider:

  1. Group process: pros and cons of parliamentary procedure and consensus.
  2. Decision making: NGT, ADELPHI, others
  3. Issue generation and consensus building: Cardstorming, others
  4. Organizational Analysis - Tree of life
  5. The functions of conflict and conflict management: negotiation, mediation
  6. Public Meeting Check List
  7. People's Hearing
  8. Community Assessment/Analysis - Strengths based; Grassroots based; Use of popular education and Participatory Rural Appraisal methods.
  9. Triple A Methodology - Casteloe and Watson


Amidei, N. (1982). How to Be An Advocate in Bad Times. Public Welfare,
Summer, pp. 37-42.
Brody, R. (1982). Problem solving: Concepts and methods for community
organizations. N.Y.: Human Sciences Press. Especially useful are chapters 4, 5, 8 and appendix A " Problem Solving Concepts and Methods Check List. (handout).
* Castelloe, P. & Watson, T. (1999). Participatory education as a community practice method: A case example from a comprehensive Headstart program. Journal of Community Practice, 6(1), pp. 71-89.
* Castelloe, P. & Watson, T. (1999). The Triple-A Methodology: Integrating participatory development, popular education, and community organizing. Community Development Journal.
Coleman, J. (1957). Community conflict. N.Y.: The Free Press.
Coser, L. A. (1956). The Functions of social conflict. N.Y.: The Free Press.
Creighton, J. L. (1992). Involving citizens in community decision making: A guidebook. Washington, DC: Program For Community Problem Solving.
* Delbecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A.H. & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for programm,planning, (pp. 7-14). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman Co.
(*) Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1983). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement
without giving in. N.Y.: Penguin Press. (handout)
Gastil, J. (199?). Democracy in small groups: Participation, decision-making and communication. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers.
Hancock, T. & Minkler, M. (1997). Community health assessment or healthy community assessment, in M. Minkler, (Ed.). Community organizing and community building for health. (pp. 139-156). New Brunswich, N. J.: Rutgers University Press.
* Homan, Review Chapters 6-9, Read 10-12, pp. 205-318.
Ch. 10, Raising Other Resources
Ch. 11, Getting the Word Out
Ch. 12, Building the Organized Effort
Kahn, Si. (1995). Community organization. In R. L. Edwards, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition., (pp. 569-576).Washington D. C.: NASW.
Kaner, S. (1996). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making. Gabriola Is., BC, Canada: New Society Publishers. (pp. 31-84).
* McKnight, J. & Kretzman, J.P. (1997). Mapping community capacity. In M. Minkler (Ed.). Community organizing and community building for health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. (pp. 157-172).
Tropman, J. (1995). Community needs assessment. In Richard L. Edwards, Editor-In-Chief, Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition., (pp. 563-569).Washington D. C.: NASW.
Tropman, J. (1997). Successful Community Leadership: A Skills Guide for Volunteers and Professionals. Washington D.C.: NASW Press.

Unit IV. Power, Empowerment and Mediating Structures: September 25

  1. A. Homan - Common bases of power in a community
  1. Information
  2. Money
  3. Ability to make, interpret, and enforce policies, laws
  4. Constituencies
  5. Access to and control of energy and natural resources
  6. Goods and Services, the value to the local economy
  7. Network Participation, connections
  8. Family
  9. History
  10. Status Occupations
  11. Illegal actions (bribery, threat of violence, violence)
  12. Personality, charismatic or intimidating

(Explore the attributes Homan has not listed. Explore the role race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation and physical attributes play regarding power and empowerment.)

  1. B. Community Decision Making Theories
  1. Elitist: Floyd Hunter and C. Wright Mills (studied social background/reputation)
  2. Pluralists: Robert Dahl, Nelson Polsby (studied direct decisions/overt power)
  3. Concept of non-decision: Peter Bachrach (studied mobilization of bias)
  4. Concept of politics as symbolic actions: Murray Edelman
  1. C. Empowerment in Practice
  1. Freire, Brazilian educator
  2. Highlander Center, New Market, TN
  1. Power and Ethics in Action Strategies
  1. Confrontation
  2. Negotiation
  3. Collaboration
  4. Co-optation
  1. E. Cuoto's Mediating Structures
  1. Social Dimensions
  2. Political Dimensions
  3. Mitigating the Market
  4. Providing Social Capital


Bernstein, E., (1994). Empowerment forum: A dialogue between guest editorial board members. Health Education Quarterly. Vol. 21(3): pp. 281-294.
Berry, J. M., Portney, K.E. & Thomson, K. (1993) The Rebirth of urban democracy. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution. (Chapter 12, The Case for a Strong Democracy, pp. 283-299. Also of value, Part Three: Does Participation Empower? pp. 195-280).
* Carter, C. S. (1999). Church burning in African American communities: Implications for empowerment practice. Social Work, 44(1), pp.62-68.
Coombe, C. M. (1998). Using empowerment evaluation in community organizing and community based health initiatives, in M. Minkler, (ed.), Community organizing and community building for health, (pp. 291-307). New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press
* Couto, R.A. Making democracy work better. Part II - The democratic prospect of mediating structures (pp. 71- 206).
Chapter 3 - Social Dimensions
Chapter 4 - Political Dimensions
Chapter 5 - Economic Dimensions I - Mitigating the Market
Chapter 6 - Economic Dimensions II - Providing Social Capital
Davis, A. (1982). Settlement workers in politics: l890-l9l4 (Chapter 2), and, R. Messinger, Empowerment: A social workers politics, (Chapter l3). In M. Mahaffey and J. Hanks, (eds.), Practical Politics: Social work and political responsibility. New York: Nat. Assoc. of Social Work.
Freire, P. (1985). The Politics of education: Culture, power, and liberation. South Hadley, MA.: Bergin & Garvey Pub.
Freire, P. (1998). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to those who dare to teach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
(*) Friends Committee on National Legislation - Washington Newsletter (handouts)
February, 2000, No. 640: Where race, economics, and criminal justice intersect: Questions of civil rights.
April, 2000, No. 642: Women and poverty: an unequal burden
Hall, R. (Ed.).(1988). Environmental politics. Durham, NC; Institute for Southern Studies.
Appendix I, Who Owns North Carolina, pp. 106-121.
Hanna, M. G. & Robinsen, B. (1994). Strategies for community empowerment: Direct action and transformative approaches to Social Change. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellon Press.
Haynes, K. S. & Mickelson, J. S. (1991). Affecting change: Social workers in the political arena, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Longman Publishers
* Homan, Promoting Community Change. Review Chapter 7, and read Chapter 13, pp 319-354.
Ch. 13, Taking Action--Strategies and Tactics.
Kahn, S. (1994). How people get power, Revised Edition. Washington D. C.: NASW Press.
Karp, W. (1989). All the Congressmen's men: How capitol hill controls the press. Harpers Magazine, July, 55-63.
Mondros, J. B. & Wilson, S. M. (1994). Organizing for power and empowerment. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. (Chapter 2, "Community owned government: Empowering rather than serving." pp. 49-75). Reading, MA: Addisson-Wesley Pub. Co., Inc.
Piven, F. F. & Cloward, R.C. (1979). Poor people's movements: Why they succeed, how they fail. N.Y.: Vintage Books, Random House.
Simon, B. L. (1994). The Empowerment tradition in American social work. (Chapter 8, Recent visions of empowerment practice, 1945-1994," pp.153-186.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Staples, L. (1990). Powerful ideas about empowerment. Administration in Social Work. Vol. 14:2, pp. 29-42.

Unit V. Initiating and Sustaining Grass Roots Groups: October 2 & 9

  1. Engaging with a community group:
  1. who pays the facilitator? who provides the leadership?
  2. social contracts
  • between grassroots groups and facilitators;
  • between grassroots groups and enabling systems;
  • between grassroots groups and "parent" organizations.
  1. ethical guidance for facilitator; for the leadership
  1. Facilitating awareness of reasons to organize ("conscientization"):
  1. helping people describe their reality and understand their connectedness
  2. helping people understand issues/concerns in the context of community and society
  1. Facilitating group organization by developing the capacities of group members:
  1. leadership training, building community capacity
  2. understanding and reaching consensus about decision making methods
  3. developing structures that are inclusive and accessible
  1. Linking group with resources:
  1. networking with other groups
  2. funds/materials
  3. information
  4. technologies
  1. Facilitating group goal setting, revisiting ethical issues regarding goals and means
  2. Working toward group independence, group collaborations
  3. Disengaging.


* "You Got to Move" video on Highlander Center
Allen, J. A.V. (1985). Women as a Major Force in the Planning and Implementation of Social Development Strategies. SocialDevelopment Issues, 9:l, pp. 34-
Alinsky, S. (1971). Rules for radicals. N.Y: Random House. (Of Means and Ends,
pp 24-47).
Dale, D. (1978). How to Make Citizen Involvement Work: Strategies For Developing Clout. Amherst: U. of Mass., Citizen Involvement Training Project.
Delgado, G. (1994). Beyond the politics of place: New directions in community organizing in the 1990's. Oakland, CA.: Applied Research Center.
Chavis, D. M., Florin, P. & Felix, M.R.J. (1993). Nurturing grassroots initiatives for community development: The role of enabling systems, pp. 41-67. In T. Mizrahi & J. Morrison (Eds.) Community Organization and Social Administration. New York: Haworth.
* Cuoto, R.A. (1999) Making democracy work better. Part III - Mediating Structures and Social Capital (pp. 205-294).
Chapter 7 - Creating and Maintaining Community
Chapter 8 - Management Matters
Chapter 9 - Community Change
Fawcett, S. B. et. al. (1984). Creating and using social technologies for community empowerment, in Julian Rappaport and Robert Hess, (eds.). Studies In Empowerment. New York: Haworth. pp. 145-171.
Gaventa, J. (1981). Land owernership in Appalachia, USA: A Citizens' research project. In F. Dubell, (ed.) Research for the people: Research by the people. (pp. 118-130). Linkoping, Sweden: Linkoping University Dept. of Education.
* Homan, Promoting community change. Review Chapters 8, 9, & 12. Read Chapters 14 & 15 pp. 355-394.
Ch. 14, Enhancing the Quality of Neighborhoods
Ch. 15, Increasing the Effectiveness of Established, Formal Organizations.
Horton, M., Kohl, J. & Kohl, H. (1992). The Long haul: An Autobiography. New York: Doubleday.
Kaner, S. (1996). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making. Gabriola Is., BC, Canada: New Society Publishers. (pp. 113-236).
Kurtz, L. F. (1997). Self-Help and support groups: A handbook for practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Luttrell, W. (1988). Claiming what is ours: An Economics experience workbook. New Market, TN.: Highlander Center.
Rivera, F. G. & Erlich, J. L.(Eds.). (1998). Community organizing in a diverse society. Third Edition. (Chapter 1, A time of fear; A Time of Hope, pp. 1-24). Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon.
Rubin, H.J. & Rubin, I. S. (1992). Community organizing and development, 2nd Edition. New York: Macmillan.
Serrano-Garcia, I. (1984). The Illusion of empowerment: Community development within a colonial context. In J. Rappaport and R. Hess, (eds.) Studies in empowerment. N.Y.: Haworth. pp. 173-200
Social Policy. Vol. 21, No. 3, Winter , 1991, Building Movements, Educating Citizens: Myles Horton and the Highlander Folk School. (Especially, Morris, A. "Introduction: Education for Liberation," pp. 2-6, and Clark, M. & Greer, C. "A Culture of Politics", pp. 53-61).
* Stout, L. (1996). Bridging the class divide and other lessons for grassroots organizing, (Invisible walls, pp. 117-140). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Zander, A. (1990). Effective Social Action by Community Groups. San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.

Unit VI. The Use and Results of Citizen Participation: October 16

  1. Government Initiated Participation
  1. Public Hearing
  2. Participation in regular meetings: norms and rules
  3. Task force to study and recommend
  4. Advisory committees
  1. Citizen Initiated Participation
  1. Communication with elected officials, letters to the editor
  2. Special interest group organization: self help and political action
  3. Organizing disenfranchised/powerless groups
  4. Local actions and Mass Movements
  5. Lobbying
  1. Developing Participatory Capacity
  1. Community Competence - Cottrell; Eng & Parker; Minkler & Wallerstein; Denham, Quinn and Gamble; and, the Community Capacity Building Learning Cluster of the Aspen Institute.
  2. Social capital and its relation to community competence - Putnam; Castelloe, Cuoto
  3. Advocacy for self (issues that affect one personally)
  4. Advocacy for social/economic justice


* Bullard, R.D. (1997). Dismantling environmental racism in the policy arena: The role of collaborative social research. In Nyden, P. et. al. (Eds.), Building community: Social science in action (pp. 67-73). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Checkoway, B. (l997). Core concepts for community change. In M. Weil, (Ed.). Community practice: Models in action, (pp. 11-29). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.
* Castelloe, P. (1999). Community change: An integrated conceptual model. In P. Castelloe, Community change and community practice: An organic model of community practice. Unpuplished doctoral dissertation, School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
* Couto, R. A. (1999). Making democracy work better.
Conclusions (pp. 295-301).
Denham, A., Quinn, S. C. & Gamble, D. (1998). Community Organizing for Health Promotion in the Rural South: An Exploration of Community Competence. Family and Community Health. 21(1): 1-21.
Hall, B. (ed.). (1988) Environmental Politics: Lessons from the Grassroots, (Chapter I, Lessons From The Grassroots, pp. 1-12). Durham, NC.: Institute for Southern Studies.
* Homan, Promoting Community Change. Chapter 16, pp. 395-413.
Ch. 16, Lobbying for Change.
Lynn, F. M. & Kartez, J. D. (1994). Environmental democracy in action: The toxics release inventory. Environmental Management. Vol. 18 (4): pp. 511-521.
Morrison, J. D. (1984). Can organizing tenants improve housing? Social Development Issues, 8:3, pp. l03-ll5.
National Congress for Community Economic Development (1990). Human investment . . . Community profits. Social Services and Economic Development Task Force. Washington D. C.: NCCED.
* Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic traditions in modern Italy.
(Chapter 6, "Social Capital and Institutional Success," pp. 163-185 and notes, pp.240-247). Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press.
Rosener, J. (1982). Making bureaucrats responsive: A study of the impact of citizen participation and staff recommendations on regulatory decision making. Public Administration Review, No. 4,pp. 246-253.
(*) Shaping Orange County's future: New directions for Orange County. (April, 2000).

Unit VII, Volunteers and Voluntary Agencies: October 23 & 30

  1. Degree/type of volunteer involvement in the U.S.
  2. Planning for successful volunteer involvement
  3. The creation and care of Boards
  4. Facilitating Boards and Volunteer groups that represent a wide spectrum of the community.


* Bell, M. (1999). Volunteering: Underpinning social action in civil society for the new millennium. In, E. Mbogori (Ed.), Civil society at the millennium (pp.27-41). West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press in cooperation with CIVICUS.
* Delgado, M. (1998). Role of latina-owned beauty parlors in a Latino community. In P. L. Ewalt, E. M. Freeman, & D. L Poole, (Eds.), Community building: Renewal, well-being and shared responsibility, (pp. 82-92). Washington DC: NASW Press
Hunt, G. J., & Paschall, N.C. (1984). Volunteers: Forming effective citizen groups. Lanham, MD.: University Press of America.
Morrow-Howell, Nancy, Leeanne Lott and Martha Ozawa. (1990) The Impact of race on volunteer helping relationships among the elderly. Social Work, Sept. (35) 5. pp. 395-402.
(*) North Carolina Dept. of Human Services, Handbook for Volunteer Services, Office of Volunteers, Raleigh, N. C. (handout)
Tomeh, A. K. (1981). The Value of Volunteerism Among Minority Groups. Phylon, March, pp. 86-97.
Wilson, Marlene. (1976). The Effective Management of Volunteer Programs. Boulder, CO: Volunteer Management Associates. (Note: If you wish to purchase a good handbook for volunteer development, recruitment, training, monitoring and evaluation, this is still a very good book. Don't be put off by the date.)

Unit VIII, Participation Issues in International Development: November 6

  1. Violence and militarism as deterrents to development.
  2. Relationship of U. S. citizens to issues in the developing world.
  3. Racial/ethnic and gender issues: commonalties at home and abroad.
  4. New ideas about measuring human development.
  5. Sustainable development. Calculate your ecological footprint by going to:


*Local Heroes, (1990). video produced by South Carolina Public Broadcasting Co.
Agenda 21: An easy reference to the specific recommendations on women. (1993). (Rio Earth Summit) New York, NY. United Nations Development Fund for Women.
Ansley, F. (1999). Putting the pieces together: Tennessee women find the global economy in their own backyards. In, D. Barndt (Ed.), Women working the NAFTA food chain: Women, food and globalization (pp.142-160). Toronto, ON: Second Story Press.
Barbarin, O. A. (2000). Community violence and social inequality as legacies of apartheid: Implications for social development in South Africa. Social Development Issues 22 (2/3), pp. 39-45.
* Cagan, E. & Julià, M. (2000). Women, democracy and global transformation: Toward a reconceptualization. Social Development Issues 22 (2/3), pp. 24-31.
(*) Cavanagh, J. (1985). The Journey Of the Blouse: A Global Assembly Line. Response. pp. 10-12. Publication of United Methodist Women. (handout).
Chambers, R. (1994). Participatory rural appraisal: Challenges, potentials and paradigms. World Development. Vol. 22:10.
Chambers, R. (1997). Whose reality counts? Putting the first last. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
(*) Estes, R. J. (1993). Toward Sustainable Development: From Theory to Praxis. Social Development Issues. Vol. 15 (3). (handout).
Falk, Dennis. (1984). The Social Development Paradigm. Social Development Issues, 8(3), pp. 4-l4.
Inter-American Foundation, 1998 in review. (1999). Arlington, Va.: Inter-American Foundation.
* Healy, K. (1991). Animating grassroots development: Women's popular education in Bolivia. Grassroots Development, 15(1), pp.26-34.
Healy, L. M. (1992). Introducing International Development Content in the Social Work Curriculum. International Committee, Council on Social Work Education and National Association of Social Workers, Washington D. C.
* Hellman, J.A. (1994). Chapter 7: The Border. In, J. A. Hellman, Mexican lives (pp.152-184). N.Y., N.Y.: The New Press.
Hokenstad, M. C. & Midgley, J. (Eds.). (1997). Issues in International Social work: Global Challenges for a New Century. Washington D.C.: NASW Press
Korten, D. C. (1990). Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary Action and the Global Agenda. West Hartford, CN.: Kumarian Press.
Midgley, J. (1990). International Social Work: Learning from the Third World. Social Work, 35:4, pp. 295-301.
NASW's Project on the destructive role of violence against the potential of development (handout).
Seipel, M. M. O. (1999). Social consequences of malnutrition. Social Work, 44(5), pp. 416-125.
Sivard, R. L. (1988).World Military and Social Expenditures. Washington D. C.: World Priorities.
Thomas-Slayter, B. (1995). Chapter 2: A Brief history of participatory methodologies. In Slocum, R. el. Al. (eds.) Power process and participation: Tools for Change. London, U.K.; Intermediate Technology publications.
Uphoff, N., Esman, M. J., & Krishna, A. (1998). Reasons for success: Learning from instructive experiences in rural development. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Walz, T., Sharma, S. & Birnbaum, C. (1990). Gandhian Thought as Theory Base for Social Work. Champaign-Urbana, IL.:School of Social Work, University of Illinois.
Weber, R. (1998). Banking on youth: Leveraging social investment in Trinidad and Tobago. Grassroots Development, 21(2), pp. 28-36.
Young, K. (1993). Planning development with women: making a world of difference. London, U.K.: Macmillan.
UN Fourth World Conference on Women (1995). Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action

Presentations: Nov. 13, 20, & 27,

Review and Course Evaluation: Dec. 5

Social Work 251, Fall, 2001

Schedule for the Semester:

Aug. 21
Intro. and Course Plan
Who are we
Sign-up for facilitation exercises
Handouts for next week - Arnstein
Do Cardstorming if time allows
Work with group facilitating "Lifeline"
Aug. 28 Unit I 
Citizen Participation Defined;
"Lifeline" exercise - or "Where I Stand"
Who, why, what & how - Encyclopedia article
Arnstein, Aspen Institute, Couto & Homan
Handout for next week - Rothman & Schler outlines, charts
Choose teams, organizations for case study
Sept. 4 Unit II 
Role of the Facilitator in Citizen Participation
Schler; Rothman; Homan
Weil and Gamble Models with feminist and diversity exercise
Ethics in organizing strategies Handouts: Getting to Yes, People's Hearing,
Handout Kaner, diagram.
Sept. 11 Unit III
Methods and Techniques for Promoting Participation
Speaker: Thomas Watson from the Center for Participatory Change
Handout Conflict Management, Getting to Yes
People's Hearing, etc.
Work with group for NGT exercise
Sept. 18 Unit III
Methods and Techniques, contd.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT) exercise
Comparison to "Cardstorming"
Getting to Yes, People's Hearing,
Participatory Rural Appraisal
Sept. 25 Unit IV
Power, Empowerment, & Mediating Strategies
Homan's Categories
Organizations that are empowering exercise - Mondros & Wilson Empowerment exercise
Decision Making Theories
Couto's Mediating Structures
Oct. 2 Unit V
Initiating and Sustaining Grassroots Groups
Mediating Structures and Social Capital
Video - "You Got To Move:
Work with group facilitating "Tree of Life"
Oct. 9 Unit V
Initiating and Sustaining, cont'd.;
"Tree of Life", Organizational Development exercise
(Case Study Outline Due). (Case Study Outline due).
Oct. 16 Unit VI
The Use and Results of Participation
Review ways to influence policies, programs ("Speak-out" paper due.)
Oct. 23 Unit VII
Roles, recruitment, training, monitoring, evaluation & recognition
(Last Date to complete "Speak Out" Assignment).
Oct. 30 Unit VII
Volunteers, cont'd.
Boards and their development
Nov. 6 Unit VIII
Participation Issues in International Development,
Video: "Local Heroes" or "Community"
Nov. 13 Presentations
Nov. 20 Presentations
Nov. 27 Presentations
Dec. 4 Review and Course Evaluations (Case Study Due)