HOD 3600: Community Development & Urban Policy


Spring Semester 2008                                         Tuesdays 11:00-2:00                      Wyatt 121

Students may also be invited to present & lead discussion once or twice in the undergraduate and Masters section Tuesday or Thursday, 9:35-10:50.



Jim Fraser

102B Mayborn  (mailbox in 206 Mayborn)



Office Hours: by appointment


Doug Perkins

107 Mayborn



Office Hours: by appointment

Course Description:  This course provides an overview of theory, research and action in urban community development, housing, and related policies.  It will mostly focus on U.S. examples, but students are welcome to focus on international examples in their assignments.  It is a core course in the graduate programs in Community Development & Action and Community Research & Action.  The course helps students understand the context in which community development work operates (i.e., public policy, structures of disadvantage, and economics).  Theory around the nature of urban development, neighborhood change and community organizing/development will be discussed as they pertain to the practical knowledge and skills needed to operate effectively in the broad field of urban community development.  Community aspects of crime and crime prevention, the New Urbanist movement in planning and architecture, and participatory planning and design will also be addressed.


Course Goals: By the end of this course, we hope you will be able to do the following:

(1) Define, in multiple ways, the process of urban redevelopment and neighborhood change in all their complexity, contradictions, and paradoxes

(2) Understand in some detail the forces and organizations that are both driving and resisting

these processes

(3) Understand the impact that urban public policy is having on communities and development

in urban areas across the United States, surveying a range of domains

(4) Produce and present two seminar papers demonstrating an in-depth understanding of different community development or urban policy topics

(5) Complete a community development research project and contribute to a report analyzing the results of the project [see below; more information will be provided].

 (6) A major goal of this course is to prepare students for work in the complex field of community development occurring in cross-cultural settings, and in organizations characterized by diversity, or in institutional contexts which serve a culturally diverse clientele.  


Course Format:  Class meetings will be run as a seminar in which the instructor and individual students will lead class discussion of the readings and encourage questions on and debate of those topics.  There will be visiting speakers and team work in the field.  Lectures will typically be short and set the context for discussion.  The readings for the day on the schedule are to be read before the class period for we want you to be prepared to participate in the discussion.

The term project will also be planned and discussed periodically in class.  The exact schedule of topics and reading assignments may change.  Be aware of any changes.  If you do not think you can keep up with the readings, attend class regularly, and participate fully in the class project, you should drop the class now.


Graded Course Requirements (& % of course grade):


A. 2 Seminar [critical literature review] Papers (60%; each one: 3-6 single-spaced pages on a different week and topic; DRAFT DUE BY SUNDAY BEFORE CLASS; REVISED DRAFT TO BE GRADED DUE 1 WEEK AFTER PRESENTATION IN CLASS).  Identify 2 topics that interest you and the class session in the schedule to which it is most relevant.  You must have your topics approved by the 2nd week of class.  You should read the assigned readings related to each topic and look at any recommended readings, but must go beyond those and complete a thorough, critical, and synthesized review on each topic. Do a thorough search, especially of the recent scholarly literature on the topic using Sociological Abstracts, PAIS, Avery Index, and/or Proquest, etc.  Write a paper, summarizing and critically analyzing the primary reading you chose for the whole class and also relating it to the rest of the literature on that topic and to the text chapter. Post your draft paper to the Discussion Board at least 2 full days before the topic is scheduled.  Co-lead class discussion of the topic and paper on the day it is scheduled.  Every student in the class will be expected to read and comment (in class and on OAK) on each seminar paper. Papers may be revised based on comments and class discussion before being turned in for a grade. 


B. Community Development Research Project (30%):  This course generally involves a group community intervention project to help solve a specific problem in an actual, local community setting.  You will need to spend approximately 15-20 hours outside of class on the project.  The project's "client" organization(s) must be asked for their input on the project.  They will also be invited to class toward the end of the quarter to hear from you on the results of the project and to give us feedback. Your grade for the project will be based on a report or section of one, about 3 or 4 single-spaced pages long.  The project report must be clear, well-organized, and well-written; it should read like a detailed professional or research report.  You should write multiple drafts and get, and respond to, feedback on each draft.  The final report will be sent to the agencies and community organizations connected with the project and possibly others.  Students in 3600 may keep a project journal (optional extra credit), but must keep a log of time spent (and what you did) on the project. This semester’s project will focus on the Edgehill neighborhood just East of campus on the other side of Music Row.  More information will be provided in class.


C. Class participation (10%). This course requires significant student input and involvement.  Attendance is mandatory. [Missing 1 or at most 2 classes per semester for illness or work conflicts is excusable, but please email the instructors as soon as you know you will have to miss.] Participation in course activities, and especially class discussions, is essential.  Students need to come to class prepared, having thoroughly read the class material in advance of the class session. Throughout the term, we will be asking students to come prepared with questions to facilitate discussion of the readings.  Students may be asked to hand in these questions, which will be used in part to determine the participation grade.  Effective participation also means not distracting yourself or others.  Please devote your full attention to the class.  Use of computers, phones, or other material not related to course work is not permitted. 


For all the above, late work will lose points. Any missing units of work will be graded 0. Please talk to the instructor if you're having problems. The Vanderbilt Honor Code governs all course requirements. Violations include, but are not limited to, failure to properly credit sources in a paper, copying other students’ answers to quiz questions, and taking credit in a group project and doing less than your share of the work.  Student study groups and, with instructor’s prior approval, collaboration on presentations and projects are permissible. If you have any doubts how the Honor Code applies, please ask the instructor- not another student- for clarification. Uncertainty about the application of the Honor Code does not excuse a violation. Students who may need disability-related accommodations should contact the instructor as soon as possible. Also, please contact the Opportunity Development Center: 322-4705.


Required Books (should be in bookstore or order from Amazon.com)


DeFilippis, James & Saegert, Susan. (2007). The community development reader. New York: Routledge. [$39.95 on Amazon]

Pattillo, Mary. (2007). Black on the block: The politics of race and class in the city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  [$19.14 on Amazon]

Lees, Loretta, Slater, Tom, & Wyly, Elvin. (2007). Gentrification. New York: Routledge.  [$29.95 on Amazon]

Mitchell, Don. (2003). The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. New York: Guilford Press. [$26.00 on Amazon]

DeFilippis, James. (2003). Unmaking Goliath: Community control in the face of global capital. NY: Routledge. [$36.95 on Amazon; available as an e-book for FREE through library]

Schwartz, Alex. (2006). Housing policy in the United States: An introduction. New York: Routledge. [PAPERBACK: $38 on Amazon]


Additional required article readings will be linked on OAK.



#  Date  Topic/Required readings in bold [See changes & final reading selections on OAK]


1. 1/15 Introduction to Community development:

CDR (DeFilippis & Saegert) chapters 1-4 [Intro & Part I]


Biddle, W. W. (1965). The community development process: The rediscovery of local initiative. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston.

Blakely, E. J., & Bradshaw, T. K. (2002). Planning local economic development: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Campfens, H. (1997). Community development around the world: practice, theory, research, training. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Christenson, J.A., Fendley, K., & Robinson, J.W., Jr. (1989). Community development. In J.A. Christenson & J.W. Robinson, Jr. (Eds.), Community development in perspective (pp. 1-25). Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press.

Friedmann, J. (1992). Empowerment: The politics of alternative development. Blackwell.

Ife, J. (1995). Community development: Creating community alternatives- vision, analysis and practice. Melbourne: Longman.

Kretzman, J.P., & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community’s assets. Chicago: ACTA.

Nation, M., Wandersman, A., & Perkins, D. D. (2002). Promoting healthy communities through community development. In L. A. Jason & D. S. Glenwick (Eds.), Innovative strategies for promoting health and mental health across the life span (pp. 324-344). New York, NY: Springer.

Perkins, D. D., Crim, B., Silberman, P., & Brown, B. B. (2004). Community development as a response to community-level adversity: Ecological theory and research and strengths-based policy. In K. I. Maton, et al (Eds.), Investing in children, youth, families, and communities: Strengths based research and policy (pp. 321-340). Washington, DC: APA. http://www.people.vanderbilt.edu/~douglas.d.perkins/cdchap10.htm


2. 1/22 CD in the US: Community Development Corporations & Current Policy Framework:

CDR Chapters 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 36

OAK: Bratt, R. G. (1997). CDCs: Contributions Outweigh Contradictions, a Reply to Randy Stoecker. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1), 23-28.


3. 1/29 Social Capital, Community Meaning, Organization & Development:

CDR, Chapters 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26

OAK: Perkins, D., J. Hughey, and P. Speer (2002). Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Development Practice. Journal of the Community Development Society, 33(1). 33-51.


DeFilippis, J. (2001). The myth of social capital in community development. Housing Policy Debate, 12(4), 781-806.

Bourdieu, P. (1985). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood.

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(supplement), S95-S120.

Putnam, R. (1994). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton U Press.

Putnam, R. D. (1996). The strange disappearance of civic America, from http://epn.org/prospect/24/24putn.html

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Putnam, R. D., Feldstein, L. M., & Cohen, D. (2003). Better together: Restoring the American community. New York ; London: Simon & Schuster.

Perkins, D. D., & Long, D. A. (2002). Neighborhood sense of community and social capital: A multi-level analysis. In A. T. Fisher, C. C. Sonn & B. J. Bishop (Eds.), Psychological sense of community: Research, applications, and implications (pp. 291-318). Kluwer/Plenum.

Hughey, J., & Speer, P. W. (2002). Community, sense of community, and networks. In A. T. Fisher (Ed.), Psychological sense of community: Research, applications, and implications (pp. 69-84). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Saegert, S., & Winkel, G. (1998). Social capital and the revitalization of New York City's distressed inner-city housing market. Housing Policy Debate, 9, 17-60.

Saegert, S., Thompson, J. P., & Warren, M. R. (Eds.). (2001). Social capital and poor communities. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.



4. 2/5 CD & Community Organizing:

CDR Chapters 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29


1990 special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology on Citizen Participation.

1995 special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology on Empowerment Theory, Research & Intervention.

1996 issue of Journal of Social Issues on Grassroots Organizing, including:

Perkins, D. D., Brown, B. B., & Taylor, R. B. (1996). The ecology of empowerment: Predicting participation in community organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 85-110.

Alinsky, S. (1971). Rules for radicals. New York: Random House.

Bicklen, D.P. (1983). Community organizing. Prentice Hall.

Bobo, K. A., Kendall, J., Max, S., & Academy, M. (2001). Organizing for social change: Midwest Academy manual for activists (3rd ed.). Santa Ana, Calif.: Seven Locks Press.

Brager, G., Specht, H., & Torczyner, J.L. (1987). Community Organizing. Columbia U. Press.

Burghardt, S. (1982). Organizing for community action. Sage.

Homan, M. S. (2004). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world (3rd or 4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Wadsworth/Thompson.

Kahn, S. (1991). Organizing: A guide for grassroots leaders. Silver Spring, MD: National Assoc. of Social Workers.

Rubin, H.J., & Rubin, I.S. (1992). Community organizing and development (2nd ed.) Macmillan.

Speer, P. W., Hughey, J., Gensheimer, L. K., & Adams Leavitt, W. (1995). Organizing for power: A comparative case study. Journal of Community Psychology, 23(1), 57-73.

Speer, P. W., Ontkush, M., Schmitt, B., Padmasini, R., Jackson, C., Rengert, C. M., et al. (2003). The intentional exercise of power: Community organizing in Camden, New Jersey. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13(5), 399-408.

Warren, D.I., & Warren, R.B. (1977). The neighborhood organizer's handbook. University of Notre Dame Press.

Warren, M. R. (2001). Dry bones rattling: Community building to revitalize American democracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.


5. 2/12 Neighborhood Change from the Perspectives of Race, Class, and Gender: Part 1;

Pattillo (2007). Black on the block, Introduction and Chapters 1-4


6. 2/19 Neighborhood Change from the Perspectives of Race, Class, and Gender: Part 2;

Black on the Block, Chapters 5-end,

CDR Chapters 13, 33, 34, 35


7. 2/26 Economic and cultural roots of Neighborhood Change: Introduction to Gentrification, NIMBY, Social Housing

Lees, Slater, & Wyly (2007). Gentrification, Chapters 1 & 2

CDR Chapters 8, 9, 30, 31, & 32


Wyly, E. K., & Hammel, D. J. (2001). Gentrification, Housing Policy, and the New Context of Urban Redevelopment. Research in Urban Sociology, 6, 211-276.

Palen, J. J. (1988). Gentrification, revitalilzation, and displacement. In E. Huttman & W. van Vliet (Eds.), Handbook of Housing and the Built Environment in the United States (pp. 417-431). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Keating, W. D. (1985). Urban Displacement Research: Local, National, International. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 21(1), 132-136.

Hudson, J. R. (1980). Revitalization of Inner-City Neighborhoods: An Ecological Approach. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 15(4), 397-408.

Smith, N., & Defilippis, J. (1999). The Reassertion of Economics: 1990s Gentrification in the Lower East Side. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(4), 638-653.

Spain, D. (1993). Been-heres versus come-heres: negotiating conflicting community identities. Journal of the American Planning Association, 59(2), 156-171.

Wyly, E. K., & Hammel, D. J. (1999). Islands of Decay in Seas of Renewal: Housing Policy and the Resurgence of Gentrification. Housing Policy Debate, 10(4), 711-771.

Wyly, E. K., & Hammel, D. J. (2001). Gentrification, Housing Policy, and the New Context of Urban Redevelopment. Research in Urban Sociology, 6, 211-276.


****  3/4 Spring Break; No class ****


8. 3/11 Housing Policy & Finance:

Schwartz (2006). Housing policy in the United States. Chapters 1-8

           Recommended re Housing Policy:
Bratt, R. G., Stone, M. E., & Hartman, C. W. (Eds.). (2006). A right to housing: Foundation for a new social agenda. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Clark, S. L. (2002). Where the Poor Live: How Federal Housing Policy Shapes Residential Communities. Urban Anthropology, 31(1), 69-92.
Huttman, E. & van Vliet, W. (Eds.) (1988). Handbook of Housing and the Built Environment in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Leavitt, J. and S. Saegert. (1990.) >From Abandonment to Hope: Community-Households in Harlem.  New York: Columbia University Press. 
See sources on web, e.g.: http://www.thda.org/ 


9. 3/18 Housing Policy, Reinvestment, Integration, New Urbanism, & Smart Growth:

Housing policy in the United States Chapters 9-13

Recommended re HOPE VI:

Salama, J. J. (1999). The Redevelopment of Distressed Public Housing: Early Results from HOPE VI Projects in Atlanta, Chicago, and San Antonio. Housing Policy Debate, 10(1), 95-142.

Zielenbach, S. (2003). Assessing Economic Change in HOPE VI Neighborhoods. Housing Policy Debate, 14(4), 621-655.

Elliott, J. R., Gotham, K. F., & Milligan, M. J. (2004). Framing the Urban: Struggles over HOPE VI and New Urbanism in a Historic City. City & Community, 3(4), 373-394.

Popkin, S.J., Levy, D.K., Harris, L.E., Comey, J., Cunningham, M.K., & Buron, L.F. (2004). The HOPE VI Program: What about the Residents? Housing Policy Debate, 15(2), 385-414.

Popkin, S. J., Cunningham, M. K., & Burt, M. (2005). Public Housing Transformation and the Hard-to-House. Housing Policy Debate, 16(1), 1-24.

Joseph, M. L. (2006). Is Mixed-Income Development an Antidote to Urban Poverty? Housing Policy Debate, 17(2), 209-269. + Vale, L. J. (2006). Comment on Mark Joseph’s “Is Mixed-Income Development an Antidote to Urban Poverty?”. Housing Policy Debate, 17(2), 259-269.


10. 3/25 Economic and cultural roots of Neighborhood Change: Rise of the Creative Class,

Policy roots of gentrification (walking tour of Edgehill: 3/27, 9:40-10:50);

Gentrification, Chapters 3-7

CDR Chapter 37

Recommended re Urban Redevelopment:

Dreier, P. (1995). Putting Cities on the National Agenda. Urban Affairs Review, 30(5), 645-656.

Fainstein, N., & Fainstein, S. (1988). Urban redevelopment. In E. Huttman & W. van Vliet (Eds.), Handbook of Housing and the Built Environment in the United States (pp. 403-416). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Gans, H. J. (1962). The urban villagers. New York: Free Press.

Jacobs, J. (2002). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.

Keating, L. (2000). Redeveloping public housing - Relearning urban renewal's immutable lessons. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66(4), 384-397.

Lauria, M. (1997). Reconstructing urban regime theory : regulating urban politics in a global economy. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.

Li, S.-M., & Huang, Y. (2006). Urban Housing in China: Market Transition, Housing Mobility and Neighbourhood Change. Housing Studies, 21(5), 613 - 623.

Medoff, P., & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of hope: The fall and rise of an urban neighborhood. Boston, MA: South End Press.

Pierson, J., & Smith, J. (2001). Rebuilding community: Policy and practice in urban regeneration. New York: Palgrave.

Rossi, P. H., & Dentler, R. A. (1961). The politics of urban renewal: The Chicago findings. New York: Free Press

Thomas, A. D. (1986). Housing and urban renewal. Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Varady, D. P. (1986). Neighborhood upgrading: A realistic assessment. Albany: SUNY Press.

Recommended re Neighborhood Revitalization:

Ahlbrandt, R. S., & Brophy, P. C. (1975). Neighborhood revitalization : theory and practice. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Alterman, R., & Cars, G. (Eds.). (1991). Neighbourhood regeneration: An international evaluation. London: Mansell.

Brown, B. B., Perkins, D. D., & Brown, G. (2003). Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: Individual and block levels of analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 259-271.

Brown, G., Brown, B. B., & Perkins, D. D. (2004). New housing as neighborhood revitalization: Place attachment and confidence among residents. Environment and Behavior, 36(6), 749-775.

Fraser, J. C., Kick, E. L., & Williams, J. P. (2002). Neighborhood Revitalization and the Practice of Evaluation in the United States: Developing a Margin Research Perspective. City & Community, 1(2), 217-235.

Fraser, J., & Lepofsky, J. (2004). The Uses of Knowledge in Neighbourhood Revitalization. Community Development Journal, 39(1), 4-13.

Hudson, J. R. (1980). Revitalization of Inner-City Neighborhoods: An Ecological Approach. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 15(4), 397-408.

Keating, W. D., Krumholz, N., & Star, P. (1996). Revitalizing urban neighborhoods. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Perkins, D.D., Brown, B.B., Long, D.A., Larsen, C., & Brown, G. (under review). Psychological predictors of neighborhood revitalization: A sense of place in a changing community. Housing Policy Debate.

Rohe, W. M., & Stewart, L. (1996). Homeownership and neighborhood stability. Housing Policy Debate, 7(1), 37-81.

Teaford, J. C. (1990). The rough road to renaissance: Urban revitalization in America, 1940-1985. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Varady, D. (1986). Neighborhood confidence: A critical factor in neighborhood revitalization? Environment and Behavior, 18, 480-501.

Woodworth, W., Meek, C., & Whyte, W. F. (1985). Industrial democracy: strategies for community revitalization. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.


11. 4/1 Crime, Urban Neighborhoods, Public Space & Democracy:

Mitchell (2003). Right to the City, Introduction, Chapters 1 & 2

TBA re crime & community

           Recommended re crime & community development:

Brown, B. B., Perkins, D. D., & Brown, G. (2004). Crime, new housing, and housing incivilities in a first ring suburb: Multilevel relationships across time. Housing Policy Debate, 15(2), 301-345.

Brown, B. B., Perkins, D. D., & Brown, G. (2004). Incivilities, place attachment and crime: Block and individual effects. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 359-371.

Burby, R. J., & Rohe, W. M. (1989). Deconcentration of public housing: Effects on residents' satisfaction with their living environments and their fear of crime. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 25(1), 117-142.

Covington, J., & Taylor, R. B. (1989). Gentrification and Crime Robbery and Larceny Changes in Appreciating Baltimore Neighborhoods during the 1970s. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 25(1), 142-172.

Carter, S. P., Carter, S. L., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2003). Zoning out crime and improving community health in Sarasota, Florida: "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design". Am J Public Health, 93(9), 1442-1445.

Gorman, D. M., Speer, P. W., Gruenewald, P. J., & Labouvie, E. W. (2001). Spatial Dynamics of Alcohol Availability, Neighborhood Structure and Violent Crime. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(5), 628-636.

Perkins, D. D., & Taylor, R. B. (1996). Ecological assessments of community disorder: Their relationship to fear of crime and theoretical implications. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24(1), 63-107.

Perkins, D. D., Wandersman, A. H., Rich, R. C., & Taylor, R. B. (1993). The physical environment of street crime: Defensible space, territoriality and incivilities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), 29-49.

Saegert, S., Winkel, G., H., & Swartz, C. (2002). Social capital and crime in New York city's low-income housing. Housing Policy Debate, 13(1), 189-226.

Sampson, R. J. (2001). Crime and public safety: Insights from community-level perspectives on social capital. In S. Saegert, J. P. Thompson & M. R. Warren (Eds.), Social capital and poor communities (pp. 89-114). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Taylor, R. B. (1995). The Impact of Crime on Communities. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 539(May), 28-45.

Taylor, R. B. (1997). Social order and disorder of street blocks and neighborhoods: Ecology, microecology, and the systemic model of social disorganization. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34(1), 113-155.

Taylor, R. B., & Covington, J. (1988). Neighborhood Changes in Ecology and Violence. Criminology, 26(4), 553-590.

Taylor, R. B., & Covington, J. (1993). Community Structural Change and Fear of Crime. Social Problems, 40(3), 374-395.

Taylor, R. B., Harrell, A., & National Institute of Justice (U.S.). (1996). Physical environment and crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.


12. 4/8 Urban spatial contests and justice: Urban policy and public space (urban renewal) Public space and the management of disadvantaged populations

The Right to the City, Chapters 3-6 & Conclusion


Davis, J. E. (1991). Contested ground: Collective action and the urban neighborhood. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Crensen, M. (1983). Neighborhood politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carmon, N. (Ed.). (1990). Neighborhood policy and programmes: Past and present. Macmillan.

Flyvbjerg, B. (1998). Rationality and power: Democracy in practice (S. Sampson., Trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Flyvbjerg, B., Bruzelius, N., & Rothengatter, W. (2003). Megaprojects and risk: An anatomy of ambition. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Merrifield, A. (2002). Dialectical urbanism: Social struggles in the capitalist city. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Palen, J.J. (1997).  The urban world, 5th Edition.  McGraw-Hill.

Yates, D. (1973). Neighborhood democracy. Lexington, MA: Heath.


13. 4/15 New Urbanism, Participatory and Inclusionary Planning

OAK: Tennessean excerpts from The Plan of Nashville

TBA [re New Urbanism]

Recommended re New Urbanism and Smart Growth:

Audirac, I., & Shermyen, A.H. (1994). An evaluation of Neotraditional Design’s social prescription: Postmodern placebo or remedy for suburban malaise? Journal of Planning Education and Research, 13,161-173.

Brown, B. B., & Cropper, V. L. (2001). New urban and standard suburban subdivisions: Evaluating psychological and social goals. Journal of the American Planning Association, 67(4), 402-419.

Calthorpe P. (1993). The next American metropolis: Ecology, community, and the American dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Calthorpe, P., Fulton, W., & Fishman, R. (2001). The regional city: Planning for the end of sprawl. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296-312.

Kalinosky, L. (2001). Smart Growth for Neighborhoods: Affordable Housing and Regional Vision. Washington, DC: National Neighborhood Coalition.

Katz, P. (ed.) (1994). The new urbanism: Toward an architecture of community. McGraw-Hill.

Kunstler, J.H. (1993). The geography of nowhere: The rise and decline of America’s man-made landscape. NY: Touchstone.

National Neighborhood Coalition (2001). Smart Growth for Neighborhoods: Affordable Housing and Regional Vision. Washington, DC: NCC. (PDF: www.neighborhoodcoalition.org )

Participatory Planning & Design:
Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planning, 35(4), 216-224.

Hester, R. (1984). Planning neighborhood space with people.

Hester, R. (1985). Landstyles and lifescapes: 12 steps to community development. Landscape Architecture, 75, 78-85.

Hester, R. (1987). Participatory design and environmental justice. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 4, 289-299.

Higgins, B. R. (1987). Economic growth and grassroots participation: The paradoxes of progressive planning. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 4, 329-334.

Jennings, J. (2004). Urban Planning, Community Participation, and the Roxbury Master Plan in Boston. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 594(July), 12-33.
Kreyling, C., & Nashville Civic Design Center (2005). The plan of Nashville: Avenues to a great city. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Manzo, L. C., & Perkins, D. D. (2006). Finding Common Ground: The Importance of Place Attachment to Community Participation and Planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20(4), 335-350.

McCamant, K., & Durrett, C. (1994). Cohousing. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Morrish, W. R., & Brown, C. R. (2000). Planning to stay: Learning to see the Physical Features of your Neighborhood (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions.

Peterman, W. (2000). Neighborhood planning and community-based development: The potential and limits of grassroots action. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Tobin, G. A. (1982). Three Views of Central City Redevelopment. Journal of the Community Development Society, 13(2), 1-15.


14. 4/22 Conclusions on Urban CD & Policy: Globalization, Migration and Community Mobilization: New Forms of Community?

DeFilippis (2003). Unmaking Goliath: Community control in the face of global capital.

CDR Chapter 38, 39


Clifford, R. “Diasporas,” Current Anthropology 9:3:302-338. 1994.

Campfens, Hubert (1997). International Review of Community Development: Theory and Practice. In H. Campfens (ed.) Community Development Around the World, (Pp. 11-40) University of Toronto Press.         

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