Community  Development
Rural Soc 617
The web address for this syllabus is :

Professor: Randy Stoecker
Office:  Ag Hall 340d
Office Hours: W 3-5:00, and by appointment
Phone:  890-0764
Fax: 263 - 4999

Fall, 2006
Thursdays 2:25-5:25
351 Moore


The field of community development has almost as many definitions as practitioners.  For some, it is narrowly defined as building buildings--a definition most common in the U.S.  Others see it as very much a social service process.  Some, mostly outside of the U.S., see it as a holistic practice including community organizing and advocacy.  And yet others include all those definitions and more.  Add to that the confusion over just what the target "community" is, and it is no wonder that we need an entire course just to begin understanding what is involved.


I have two goals for this course:

1.  to understand basic community development models.

2.  to learn basic community development skills.

Achieving those two goals will probably be challenging for many of you.  Community development is both a highly intellectual activity and a gritty practical one.  Doing good community development requires understanding local, national, and regional political economies.  It also requires excellent people skills.  You will feel the tension between those two things in this course, as we shift back and forth between highly intellectual academic journal articles and nuts-n-bolts training manuals.


Please inform me if you have special learning needs so I can adjust the course to meet those needs.


When teachers realize they still have things to learn and students realize they have things to teach, and when everyone is in an atmosphere where teachers are encouraged to learn and students are encouraged to teach, everyone benefits.

My job is to create and maintain a classroom atmosphere where everyone feels comfortable taking intellectual and interpersonal risks, and to help you do your part in maintaining that atmosphere.  I welcome attacks on ideas, especially my own.  But please practice respect for each other as people while you question and criticize each others' ideas. 


Please consult with me whenever you have a question about course assignments, lectures, discussions, or readings. I will gladly discuss questions you have about the course material. You should also consult with me whenever you may find yourself interested in the issues raised in the course and you want to discuss further or get more information.


The course will begin with the thorny issue of definitions--what is a community, what is community development, etc.  Then we will look at some of the conceptual issues in CD--social capital, political opportunity structures, and forms of CD that include technology, housing, and economic development.  Then we will move into the training portion of the course, where you will learn basic skills like doorknocking, organizing meetings, assessing community conditions, and others.  The final weeks of the course will be student led, covering topics that I am either not knowledgeable on or that you think should be included in the course.


At some points I will lecture, in order to provide you with historical background or theoretical concepts that I think are absolutely essential for you to develop effective knowledge of community organizing and development. Most of the time, however, we will be engaged in small group or large group discussion and workshops. These discussions will require you to provide information you obtained from the readings so, if you don't do the required readings each week, you will be lost and we will lose your participation. We will also be doing a number of workshops during the course that will involve discussion and interaction. I always welcome your participation, comments, and questions since I think student participation contributes to a much more interesting class.


All readings are available on the Internet, though some may require that you be logged onto the UW network. I have taken every effort to post links that will work from on and off campus.  When you are off campus, clicking on a reading link will redirect you to a login page where you should be able to use either your NetID or your student ID to access the reading.  I apologize to anyone using screen readers who must contend with only barely accessible pdf files.  All links are verified as of August 15.  Please let me know if you find any bad ones.

I am also recommending my book "Research Methods for Community Change," for the training section of the course.  It is not, however, required.

Each week there will be at least one reading required of everyone.  You will choose among the rest of the readings to complete the reading requirement each week. 

Please print out the readings you choose or bring your pda/laptop to class with an electronic version.


This course is supported online, where you will submit your writing and engage in out-of-class discussion.  You should be able to go to to login, where you will see the course listed. This will be primarily for you to upload assignments.  You can also use the "e-mail" link to contact your fellow classmates.


You are responsible for reading, understanding, and following these requirements.

One of the other manifestations of the intellectual-practical tension in this course will be reflected in the assignments.  I want you to learn how to write very brief, focused, plain-prose, lively stuff.  I also want you to learn how to write complex involved pieces.  So there will be two types of requirements for the course:

1.  Letterman Lists

Those of you familiar with "The Late Show" probably know about David Letterman's famous top ten lists. These lists, presented beginning with the 10th (least important) item, present observations (humorous in Letterman's case) on a single topic. At the top of the list is the number one most important observation.

We are going to be adapting the Letterman list format for this class. You will be writing three Letterman lists, during the third, sixth, and twelfth weeks of class (see course calendar below):

  1. The top 10 theoretical insights about community development (due Sept. 22).
  2. The top 10 issues in community development (due Oct. 13).
  3. The top 10 strategies for successful community development (due Nov. 26).

How do you do these and how will I grade them? Here are the rules:

  1. Each item should be a maximum of one sentence (with a maximum of two commas), and should cite at least one reading.
  2. The entire list should cite a minimum of five readings for undergrad students and seven readings for grad students.
  3. Each item should be specific rather than general. Don't say "CDCs are contradictory organizations" but say "One of the CDC's contradictions is that its development projects often disorganize communities by moving old residents out and new residents in (Stoecker, 1997)."  Don't quote readings.
  4. Each item will be worth 2 points, based on the criteria in 1-3 above. I will not grade you on whether I agree with your list, but on the extent to which you used the course readings accurately and specifically.
  5. Due dates are listed on the course calendar below.  You lose 2 points for every day late.
  6. Please submit your list as hard copy in class or by using the electronic "dropbox" on the course support website.
  7. I welcome you to work collectively.

Be forewarned that this may be more difficult than it looks.  Many of us write our way to understanding.  Many people have to write 3-5 pages before they figure out what they really want to say.  Letterman lists are what you write after you figure out what you want to say.  You won't be able to do these the night before class unless you are exceptionally bright and clear-headed.  You will have to ponder the readings, evaluating what you consider to be insights, and then prioritizing them.  A good ten sentence list could take as long to do as a good 5-page essay. I write for both academic journals and for trade publications.  It is far easier for me to write a 10,000 word journal article than a 2,000 word trade article.

So why put you through this? Here are the top 10 reasons for using Letterman lists:

  1. because there are too many of you to grade 10-page essay exams.

  1. because if I gave you tests you would tell me what I learned rather than what you learned, and I would be reading fifty versions of the same thing--borrrriiiinnnnggg.

  1. because I need a lever to get some of you to do the reading.

  1. because it could be fun.

  1. because I like trying new things and you should too.

  1. because it promotes self-expression by not predefining what the answer should be.

  1. because this way I can learn something too, as each of you combine different things in different ways and assign different priorities to the ideas.

  1. because it promotes active learning by helping you to read for insights rather than just for regurgitation.

  1. because it's important for everyone, but especially people working in community development, to learn how to write using fewer words.

  1. because doing good community development requires taking bits of things from a variety of sources to create useful outcomes, and this exercise will give you experience in that process.

**note:  your list entries will be longer with more depth to them than the example above.

2.  Final Project

Some of you like to write papers.  Some of you have other relevant skills. You can propose to me anything relevant to the overall topic of community development for your final project, based on these broad requirements. I welcome and encourage collective work, so feel free to organize groups and develop collaborative projects. Here are some possibilities:

The final project requirements are:


Service learning projects:  I am strict about service learning projects.  I do not see such projects as primarily student learning experiences.  Instead, the first goal of a service learning project is to enhance the capacity of a community organization. That means, to do a service learning project, you need specific skills that you can bring to a community organization.  In your proposal, you will need to tell me what those skills are and how the organization you are working with will deploy those skills.  If you wish to do a service learning project, here are the requirements: 

  • you need to find your own community organization.  I will need a letter from their director or president at the beginning of the semester specifying what you will do at that organization, and what the deadlines will be for your work, before you begin.
  • You will need to write a detailed reflection paper where you discuss your thoughts about the project in relation to the course material (at least 10 pages referencing at least 10 specific readings).
  • I will need a letter at the end of the semester from the organization director or president specifying that the work was completed satisfactorily and on time.  If I do not receive such a letter, you will receive no credit for the service learning project.

I will be happy to meet with you and the organization representative at any point to troubleshoot the partnership.  If you run into difficulties along the way, please let me know so we can all sit down together and get the experience on track.

Traditional Papers:  If you choose to write a traditional paper you should be thinking in terms of a minimum of 15 pages/15 references if you are an undergrad and 20 pages/20 references if you are a grad student.

Working in groups:  Groupwork can be challenging.  Some people join groups so they can get other people to do the work.  If you submit a group proposal, I will ask that you specify what each group member will contribute to the final product.  Each group member will receive the same grade for the final project unless a group member has alerted me to a problem in the group.  In that event, I will ask each group member to grade every other group member.  Each group member's project grade will then be computed as follows:

((sum of group member grades / number of group members) + (professor group grade)) / 2

Plagiarism:  Being found guilty of plagiarism can include failing the course and even being expelled from the University.  The Internet makes it very easy  to plagiarize, and to catch plagiarism.  It is much better to contact me if you are having difficulty developing a paper than to plagiarize and get kicked out of school.  Now, I also know that those who are committed to cheating won't be put off at all by my pronouncements, but some honest students will be terror stricken that they might flunk the class because they forgot a citation.  Please rest assured I will not flunk anyone because they forgot a citation.  This policy is to catch the flagrant violators, not sloppy referencing. I will catch sloppy referencing on your rough drafts.  For more, see

3.  Attendance

Last year a number of students commented that they resented some students not attending class regularly, and would have liked an attendance requirement.  I am of two minds on such a requirement.  On the one hand, I agree that students who do not attend should not receive the same grade as those who do.  On the other hand, requiring attendance often forces students who do not want to be there to disrupt the class while they twiddle with their cell phones and otherwise act disinterested, and then I become more of a social control agent than an educator.  And I generally find that those who do not attend receive a lower grade in the course (on average, a full letter lower) even when I don't require attendance.

My personal preference, of course, is that if you are not interested in the course, or otherwise cannot commit to attending, you should find a different course. We will collectively decide whether to have an attendance requirement in this class and I reserve the right to institute such a requirement at any time, based on the decision of students present in class on the day we decide.


Your final grade will be figured as the total points earned from the Letterman lists (maximum = 60) plus the total points from the final project (maximum = 40).

A (Excellent)
AB (Intermediate grade)
B (Good)
BC (Intermediate grade)
C (Fair)
D (Poor)
F (Failure)
64 or below


    **Note:  undergrads should read at least two readings per week; grads three readings (beginning Oct. 19, the readings are much shorter, and I will ask you to read more readings).

    **Remember to print out the readings you choose or bring your pda/laptop to class with an electronic version.

    **I may add readings as the semester progresses.  You can always find the most up-to-date list on the web version of the syllabus.  Please let me know of any broken links.

    **If you receive permission errors for any reading link, go to, log in, and try again.

  Sept.  7: Definitions and Theories of Community

Read at least one of the following:

**MacQueen, K. M., et. al., What is community? An evidence-based definition for participatory public health [community-based participatory research]. American Journal of Public Health. Dec. 2001 v. 91 no. 12 p. 1929-38.

**García, Isabel; Giuliani, Fernando; Wiesenfeld, Esther. Community and sense of community: The case of an urban barrio in Caracas. Journal of Community Psychology. Nov. 1999, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p727

Read at least one of the following:

Bartle, Phil. What is Community? A Sociological Perspective.  2003.

Hughes, Ian.  What is Community? 2000.

Brint, Steven.  Gemeinschaft Revisited: A Critique and Reconstruction of the Community Concept  Sociological Theory, Vol. 19, No. 1. (Mar., 2001), pp. 1-23.

Wellman, Barry, From Little Boxes to Loosely-Bounded Networks: The Privatization and Domestication of Community Pp. 94-114 in Sociology for the Twenty First Century, edited by Janet Abu-Lughod, University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Black, A., and P. Hughes. The identification and analysis of indicators of community strength and outcomes - Occasional Paper no, 2001. Department of Family and Community Services Occasional Paper No. 3.  2001.  Commonwealth of Australia.$file/No.3.pdf


  Sept. 14:  Theory and History of Community Development
Read at least one of the following:

**Cook, James B.  Community Development Theory. 1994.

**Vidal, Avis, and Dennis Keating. Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs
Volume 26, Issue 2, Page 125-137, Jun 2004

Read at least one of the following:

Spruill, Nina, Con Kenney, and Laura Kaplan.  Community Development and Systems Thinking: Theory and Practice.  National Civic Review; Spring2001, Vol. 90 Issue 1, p105.

Callo, V. N. and R. G. Packham. The use of soft systems methodology in emancipatory development. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Jul/Aug 1999.Vol.16, Iss. 4; pg. 311.

Barbanti, Olympio Jr. Development and Conflict Theory.  2004.

Overton, John. Development in Chaos? Institute of Development Studies (IDS). The Aotearoa New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 2000-11-01.

Luckett, Sidney, Steven Ngubane, Bhekathina Memela.  Designing a Management System for a Rural Community Development Organization Using a Systemic Action Research Process. Systemic Practice and Action Research. Aug 2001.Vol.14, Iss. 4; pg. 517.

Trainer, Ted .  Appropriate Third World Development.  n.d.

Munyaka, Golden.  Towards a New Theory for Community Development. Afro-Nets. 2003.

DeFillipis, James.  Alternatives to the "New Urban Politics."  Political Geography 1999 Vol. 18, p. 973.

Ostrom, Elinor; Field, Christopher B. Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges. Science, 04/09/99, Vol. 284 Issue 5412, p278,

Fisher, Robert. Neighborhood Organizing: the Importance of Historical Context. COMM-ORG. 1995.

Bartle, Phil. Disaster's End: Transforming Charity to Empowerment. 2005.

Schuftan, Claudio.  Towards a New Theory for Community Development, 2003.

Ashley, Caroline, and Simon Maxwell, Rethinking Rural Development, Development Policy Review, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 395-425, Dec 2001,

MansuriGhazala, and Vijayendra RaoCommunity-Based and -Driven Development: A Critical ReviewThe World Bank Research ObserverCary: Spring 2004.Vol.19, Iss. 1;  pg. 1.


  Sept. 21: Community Development and Community Organizing
DUE Sept. 22--Letterman list--
The top 10 theoretical insights about community development (covering readings through Sept. 21). Please submit your list as hard copy in class or by using the electronic "dropbox" on the course support website.

Read at least one of the following:

**Capraro, James F.  Community Organizing + Community Development = Community Transformation. Journal of Urban Affairs
Volume 26, Issue 2, Page 151-161, Jun 2004.

**Stoecker, Randy. Understanding the Development-Organizing Dialectic. Journal of Urban Affairs Nov2003, Vol. 25 Issue 4, 2003, p493.

Read at least one of the following:

Beckwith,  Dave, with Cristina Lopez, Community Organizing: People Power from the Grassroots. COMM-ORG:  The On-line Conference on Community Organizing and Development.

Stoecker, Randy.  Community Development and Community Organizing:  Apples and Oranges? Chicken and Egg? Pre-publication draft prepared for Ron Hayduk and Ben Shepard (eds) From ACT UP to the WTO: Urban Protest and Community Building in the Era of Globalization,  Verso, 2001.

Stoecker, Randy.  Power or Programs? Two Paths to Community Development.  Keynote Address Delivered to the International Association for Community Development Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, 2001.

Stoecker, Randy.  Community Organizing and Community-Based Redevelopment in Cedar-Riverside and East Toledo: A Comparative Study. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 2 no. 3, 1995.

Stoecker, Randy.  Report to the West Bank CDC: Communities, CDCs, and Community Organizing. 2001.

Rubin, Herbert J.  Being a Conscience and a Carpenter: Interpretations of the Community-Based Development Model. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 4 no. 1, 1997, pp. 57-90.

Rothman, Jack. Collaborative Self-Help Community Development:
When Is the Strategy Warranted? Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 7 no. 2, 2000.

  Sept. 28: Social Capital and the CDC model
DUE--Final Project Proposal (upload to course website or e-mail to me)

Guest--Dr. Gary Green, Department of Rural Sociology

   Social Capital--Read at least one of the following:

**Stoecker, Randy. The Mystery of the Missing Social Capital and the Ghost of Social Structure: Why Community Development Can't Win.  Prepublication Draft for Silverman, Robert Mark. (ed.) Community-Based Organizations: The Intersection of Social Capital and Local Context in Contemporary Urban Society. 2004. Wayne State University Press.

**Green, Gary and Anna Haines.  Asset Building and Community Development (chapter on social capital). 2001. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. (this web link may not work for you unless you are logged in to your My UW page: )

Read at least one of the following:

DeFillipis, James. The myth of Social Capital in Community Development.  Housing Policy Debate Vol. 12, Issue 4. 2001.

Siisiainen, Martti.  Two Concepts of Social Capital:  Bourdieu vs. Putnam.  Paper presented at ISTR Fourth International Conference "The Tird Sector:  For What and for Whom?"  2000.

Woodcock, Michael and Deepa Narayan.  Social Capital:  Implications for Development Theory, Research, and Policy. The World Bank Observer, Vol. 15 no. 2 August 2000, pp. 225-49.

Schuller, Tom.  Thinking About Social Capital. Working Papers of the Global Colloquium on Supporting Lifelong Learning [online], Milton Keynes, UK: Open University.

Requier-Desjardins, Denis. 1999. “On Some Contributions on the Definition and Relevance of Social Capital.”

 Putnam,Robert D. The Prosperous Community, The American Prospect vol. 4 no. 13, March 21, 1993.

Portes, Alejandro and Patricia Landolt, 1996. "Unsolved Mysteries: The Tocqueville Files II:  The Downside of Social Capital," The American Prospect, 7.26, May 1, 1996 - June 1, 1996.

   CDCs--Read at least one of the following:

**Stoecker, Randy. The CDC model of urban development: A critique and an alternative. Journal of Urban Affairs, 1997, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p1, 22p.

**Glickman, Norman J. and Lisa J. Servon.  More than Bricks and Sticks: Five Components of Community Development Corporation Capacity.  Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 9, Issue 3, p. 497.  1998.

Read at least one of the following:

Kanders, Kristin.  Building Communities.

O'Hagan, Sean.  Community Development Corporations in the United States.  2003.

Stoecker, Randy.  Defending Community Development Corporations or Defending Communities?  Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 14, Issues 1 and 2.  p. 47. 2003.

Silverman, Robert Mark. Progressive reform, gender and institutional structure: a critical analysis of citizen participation in Detroit's community development corporations Urban Studies. Volume 40, Number 13, pp.2731 - 2750 / December 2003;jsessionid=dsfb5h5alfeb.victoria

Vidal, Avis.  Reintegrating Disadvantaged Communities into the Fabric of Urban LIfe:  The Role of Community Development.  Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 6 Issue 1.  1995.

Robinson, Tony. Inner-city Innovator: The Non-profit Community Development Corporation. Urban Studies,  Vol. 33 Issue 9, p1647, Nov. 1996,.

Reingold, David A.; Johnson, Craig L. The Rise and Fall of Eastside Community Investments, Inc.: The Life of an Extraordinary Community Development Corporation. Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 25 Issue 5, p527, Dec. 2003.

Norman J. Glickman and Lisa Servon.  By the Numbers:  Measuring Community Development Corporations' Capacity.  2000.


  Oct. 5: The Political Opportunity Structure Context of Community Development
Read at least one of the following:

**Yin, Jordan. The community development industry system: A case study of politics and institutions in Cleveland. Journal of Urban Affairs;  Vol. 20 Issue 2, p137, 1998.

**Liou, Y. Thomas  and Robert C. Stroh. Community Development Intermediary Systems in the United States: Origins, Evolution, and Functions.

Read at least one of the following:

Domhoff, G. William.  The Ford Foundation in the Inner City: Forging an Alliance with Neighborhood Activists.  2005.

Vromen, Ariadne. Community activism and change: the cases of Sydney and Toronto. n.d.

Michael Leo Owens, Political Action and Black Church-Associated Community Development Corporations. COMM-ORG, 1998.

Babajanian, Babken V. Bottom Up and Top Down? Community Development in Post-Soviet Armenia: The Social Fund Model.   Social Policy and Administration. Volume 39, Issue 4, Page 448-462, Aug 2005.

Bockmeyer, J. L. Devolution and the transformation of community housing activism. The Social Science Journal v. 40 no. 2 (2003) p. 175-88;jsessionid=XSVKK21UDM5YLQA3DIMSFGOADUNGIIV0?_requestid=44942

Argent, Neil. The Neoliberal Seduction: Governing-at-a-Distance, Community Development and the Battle over Financial Services Provision in Australia. Geographical Research. Volume 43, Issue 1, 2005. Pp. 29-39.

McDermott, Mark. National Intermediaries and Local Community Development Corporation Networks: A View from Cleveland.  Journal of Urban Affairs, Volume 26, Issue 2, 2004, Pp. 171-176.

Lowe, Jeffrey S. Community Foundations: What Do They Offer Community Development?  Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26 Issue 2, 2004,  p221.

Bratt, Rachel G.; Rohe, William M. Organizational Changes Among CDCs: Assessing the Impacts and Navigating the Challenges.  Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26 Issue 2, 2004,  p197.

Benjamin, Lehn; Rubin, Julia Sass; Zielenbach, Sean. Community Development Financial Institutions: Current Issues and Future Prospects.   Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26 Issue 2, 2004.

Silverman, Robert Mark. Neighborhood Characteristics, community development corporations, and the community development industry system: a case study of the American Deep South. Community Development Journal, Vol. 36, no. 3, 2001, p. 234.

Pieterse, Edgar, and Sophie Oldfield.  Political Opportunity Structures of Urban Social Movements in South Africa. Islanda, 2002.

Eisinger, Peter K. The Conditions of Protest Behavior in American Cities. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 67, No. 1. (Mar., 1973), pp. 11-28.

Tulloss, Janice K Transforming Urban Regimes - A Grassroots Approach to Comprehensive Community Development: The Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative.  A COMM-ORG Working Paper.

  Oct. 12:  Points of intervention:  housing, economics, technology
DUE Oct. 13--Letterman list--The top 10 issues in community development (covering readings Sept. 28 through Oct. 12). Please submit your list by using the electronic "dropbox" on the course support website.

Note:  I am planning to be out of town during this class, so we will likely be meeting online.  More on that later.

Choose from the following (** is strongly recommended):

   Community Technology

**Stoecker, Randy.  Is Community Informatics Good for Communities? Questions Confronting an Emerging Field. Journal of Community Informatics, Vo. 1 no. 3, 2005.

**Day, Peter. Building and Sustaining Healthy Communities: The symbiosis between community technology and community research.  2004. (this is a zipped file, so you will need to know how to unzip it).

Pitkin, Bill. Community Informatics, Hope or Hype?    2001

Gurstein, Michael. Community Informatics.    2003.

Gurstein, Michael. Community Informatics in a Canadian Context.  2000.

Baer, Allan. Global Digital Library: Community Informatics for Rural Development.  2000.

Pigg, Kenneth. Community Networks and Community Development. 1999.

Denison,Tom  Larry Stillman, Graeme Johanson, Don Schauder.Theory, practice, social capital, and information and communications technologies in Australia.   2003.

Stillman, Larry, and Randy Stoecker.Structuration, ICTs, and Community Work.    Journal of Community Informatics, Vol. 1, no. 3, 2005.

Bieber, Michael, Richard Civille, Michael Gurstein, Nancy White. A White Paper Exploring Research Trends and Issues in the Emerging Field of Community Informatics.  2002.

Lawley, Meredith, et al. Critical Success Factors for Regional Portals: A preliminary Model.  2001.

Menou, Michel J.,  Karin Delgadillo Poepsel, Klaus Stoll.  Latin American Community Telecenters: “It’s a long way to TICperary.” 2004.

Stoll, Klaus, Michel Menou. Basic Principles of Community Public Internet Access Point’s Sustainability.   2002.

The Titanic, Pizza Delivery, Community Development, and the Internet. Randy Stoecker.  Keynote address prepared for the Third Communities Networking/Networking Communities conference, Victoria University of Technology, St. Albans, Victoria, Australia, February 28, 1998.

   Community Economic Development

**Giloth, Robert P. Jobs, Wealth, or Place: The Faces of Community Economic Development.  Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 11-27, 1998.

**Fontan, Jean-Marc, and Eric Shragge.  Community Economic Development Organizations in Montreal. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp.  125 - 136, 1998.

Svihula, Judie, and Michael J. Austin. Fostering Neighborhood Involvement in Workforce Development: The Alameda County Neighborhood Jobs Pilot Initiative. Journal of Community Practice, Issue 3, 2001.

Bendick, Marc, and Mary Lou Egan.  Worker Ownership and Participation Enhances Economic Development in Low-Opportunity Communities.  Journal of Community Practice Vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 61-85, 1995.

Sherraden, Margaret S., and William A. Ninacs.  Special Issue Introduction: Community Economic Development and Social Work.  Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 1-9, 1998.

Midgely, James, and Michelle Livermore.  Social Capital and Local Economic Development: Implications for Community Social Work Practice. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 29-41, 1998.

Raheim, Salome, and Catherine F. Alter.  Self-Employment as a Social and Economic Development Intervention for Recipients of AFDC. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 41 - 61, 1998

Banerjee, Mahasweta M. Micro-Enterprise Development: A Response to Poverty. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 63 - 83, 1998.

Lack, Evonne, and Dorothy N. Gamble. Southeastern Women's Involvement in Sustainable Development Efforts: Their Roles and Concerns. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp.  85 - 101, 1998.

Jansen, Golie G., and James L. Pippard.  The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh: Helping Poor Women with Credit for Self-Employment. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 103 - 123, 1998.

Scanlon, Edward.  Low-Income Homeownership Policy as a Community Development Strategy. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp.  137 - 154, 1998.

   Community Housing Development

**O'Regan, katherine. M. and John M. Quigley.  Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers.  Journal of Housing Research, Vol. 11 Issue 2, 2000.

**Rohe, William M., Roberto G. Quercia, Diane K. Levy. The Performance of Non-profit Housing Developments in the United States. Housing Studies, Volume 16, Number 5 / September 10, 2001. pp. 595 - 618.;jsessionid=1siuggndol0.henrietta

Bratt, R. G.  L. C. Keyes. Challenges Confronting Nonprofit Housing Organizations’ Self-Sufficiency Programs.  Housing Policy Debate, 1998.

Arches, Joan L. Challenges and Dilemmas in Community Development.  Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 6 no. 4, pp.  37 - 56, 1999.

Smith, Brent C . The Impact of Community Development Corporations on Neighborhood Housing Markets
Modeling Appreciation. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 39, No. 2, 181-204 (2003)

Miceli, T.J.  G. W. Sazama, C. F. Sirmans. The role of limited equity cooperatives in providing affordable housing.  Housing Policy Debate, 1994

Bluestone, Barry et al.  A Primer on University-Community Housing Partnerships.   2003.

Brown,Graham,  Barbara B. Brown, and Douglas D. Perkins. New Housing as Neighborhood Revitalization: Place Attachment and Confidence Among Residents. Environment and Behavior 36: 749-775. 2004.

Thomas, June Manning and Hee-Yun Hwang. Social Equity in Redevelopment and Housing: United States and Korea Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 23, No. 1, 8-23 (2003)

Scanlon, Edward.  Low-Income Homeownership Policy as a Community Development Strategy. Journal of Community Practice, Vol. 5 no. 1, pp.  137 - 154, 1998.


  Oct. 19: CD Skills--Entering the Community

Community Toolbox:  Understanding and Describing the Community,


Stoecker, Research Methods for Community Change, Chapter 2, 3.

Go to Workshop


  Oct. 26:  CD process—Choosing an Issue


Community Toolbox:  Developing a Plan for Identifying Local Needs and Resources,

Community Toolbox:  Conducting Public Forums and Listening Sessions,

Community Toolbox:  Collecting Information About the Problem,


Stoecker, Research Methods for Community Change, Chapter 4.

Go to Workshop


   Nov.  2:  CD Skills--Maximizing Participation


Community Toolbox:  Developing a Plan for Increasing Participation in Community Action,

Community Toolbox:  Promoting Participation Among Diverse Groups,

Community Toolbox:  Involving People Most Affected by the Problem,

Community Toolbox:  Conducting Effective Meetings, 

Go to Workshop


   Nov. 9: CD process--Designing an Intervention


Community Toolbox:  An Overview of Strategic Planning,

Community Toolbox:  Creating Objectives,

Community Toolbox:  Developing an Action Plan, 

Community Toolbox:  Identifying Action Steps in Bringing About Community and Systems Change,


Stoecker, Research Methods for Community Change, Chapter 5, 6.

Go to Workshop


  Nov. 16:  CD process--Evaluation; Finding Funding

Read two of the following on evaluation:

Community Toolbox:  A Framework for Program Evaluation,

Community Toolbox:  Understanding Community Leadership, Evaluators, and Funders: What Are Their Interests?,

Community Toolbox:  Developing an Evaluation Plan,

Community Toolbox:  Providing Feedback to Improve the Initiative,


Stoecker, Research Methods for Community Change, Chapter 7.

Go to Workshop

Read two of the following on funding:

Community Toolbox:  Planning and Writing an Annual Budget,

Community Toolbox:  Developing a Plan for Financial Sustainability,

Community Toolbox:  Applying for a Grant: The General Approach,

Community Toolbox:  Writing a Grant,

Go to Workshop


  Nov. 23: no class

DUE Nov. 26--Letterman list--The top 10 tips to achieve successful community development (covering readings Oct. 19 through Nov. 16). Please submit your list as hard copy in class or by using the electronic "dropbox" on the course support website.

  Nov. 30:  student projects
--Final Project Draft:  Nov. 4

Student led sessions:

Vicky Hildebrandt:  nonprofit communications

Cynthia Lin:  types of organizations and empowerment

Kristy Seblonka:  co-ops

Charity Schmidt:  Venezuelan land committees

Brandi Shingledecker  vote no campaign


  Dec. 7:  student projects
Student led sessions:

Ed Graves:  needle exchange

Jason Gonzalez:  community policing

Monica DeWild:  Parks and recreation

Rebecca Carlson:  Role of design in community development

Kelly Patterson:  community doulas

  Dec. 14:  student projects
Student led sessions:

Hannah Jurowicz:  poetry

Lani Hart and Tim Schraufnagel:  EINPC

Kara Kratowicz:  family/child community development

Claire Hanschke:  Katrina

Emily Stern:  EINPC

Julie Curti:  Community mapping



  Dec. 20:

DUE--All Final Projects, scheduled finals period, 10:05am