Tinkler:  Establishing a Conceptual Model      COMM-ORG Papers 2004 http://comm-org.wisc.edu/papers.htm

Contents | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Notes & References | Appendices


Appendix A: List of Meetings and Interviews

Coalition for Schools

Nov. 21, 2002             First Meeting with Marge, Lisa, Graham, and Don

Nov. 22, 2002             Coalition Executive Committee Meeting

Nov. 25, 2002             Meeting with Lisa

Nov. 25, 2002             Meeting in Relation to Coalition High Schools

Dec. 5, 2002                Parent Meeting at East Middle School

Dec. 6, 2002                Meeting with Lisa and Marge

Dec. 11, 2002              Meeting with Lisa, Marge, and Don

Dec. 12, 2002              Meeting with Lisa, Marge, and Rosanna

Dec. 17, 2002              Coalition Executive Committee Meeting

Dec. 19, 2002              Meeting with Don

Jan. 9, 2003                 Meeting with Lisa

Jan. 15, 2003               Coalition General Assembly Meeting

Jan. 15, 2003               Meeting with Literacy Specialist from BSU

Jan. 20, 2003               Meeting with Don

Jan. 24, 2003               Meeting with Lisa

Jan. 31, 2003               Meeting with Graham and Don

Feb. 3, 2003                Executive Committee Planning Meeting

Feb. 11, 2003              Meeting with Lisa and Marge

Feb. 17, 2003              Meeting with Graham and Don

Feb. 18, 2003              Meeting with Don

March 4, 2003             Meeting with Marge, Lisa, and Don

March 7, 2003             Meeting with Don

March 13, 2003           Meeting with Don

March 16, 2003           Meeting at Member Organization of Coalition

May 15, 2003              Interview with Elementary Teachers

May 15, 2003              Interview with Elementary Principal

May 21, 2003              Interview with Middle School Teachers

May 29, 2003              Interview with High School Teachers

May 30, 2003              Interview with Coalition Action Team Member

June 3, 2003                Interview with Executive Committee Member

June 3, 2003                Interview with General Assembly Member

June 4, 2003                Interview with Group of Parents from PSE

June 5, 2003                Interview with Marge Bowline

June 6, 2003                Coalition General Assembly Meeting

June 9, 2003                Interview with Rosanna Ibanez

June 11, 2003              Interview with Lisa Brown

June 11, 2003              Meeting with Lisa Brown

June 13, 2003              Interview with High School Principal

June 13, 2003              Interview with Middle School Principal

April 9, 2004                Follow-Up Email Interview with Lisa

Collaboration with John Brewer and Maria Swenson

Sept. 26, 2003             First Meeting with John Brewer

Sept. 30, 2003             Phone Meeting with Carol Dawson

Oct. 3, 2003                Phone Conference with Graham and Don

Oct. 15, 2003              Phone Meeting with John Brewer

Oct. 21, 2003              First Interview with John

Oct. 21, 2003              Meeting with John Brewer and Maria Swenson

Oct. 21, 2003              Meeting with Jennifer Payton

Nov. 5, 2003               Meeting with John

Nov. 5, 2003               Meeting with Maria

Nov. 12, 2003             Meeting with John

Nov. 13, 2003             Meeting with Maria

Dec. 4, 2003                Phone Meeting with John

Dec. 11, 2003              First Interview with Maria

Dec. 11, 2003              Meeting with Maria

Jan. 12, 2004               Phone Meeting with Paul

Jan. 28, 2004               Phone Meeting with Paul

Feb. 2, 2004                Pilot Survey with John's Students

Feb. 5, 2004                Phone Conference with Latino Organization

Feb. 27, 2004              Meeting with Pedro, Idella, and Maria

March 3, 2004             Phone Conference with CBR Professor

March 16, 2004           Second Interview with Maria

March 16, 2004           Meeting with Maria

March 17, 2004           Phone Conference with Community Organizer in the City

March 23, 2004           Second Interview with John

March 23, 2004           Meeting with John

April 4, 2004                Phone Conference with Regional Community Organizer

April 8, 2004                Meeting with Maria

April 9, 2004                Meeting with John

April 12, 2004              Meeting with John

April 16, 2004              Meeting with Community Organizer, Manuel, John, Maria, and Leonora

April 19, 2004              Meeting with Maria

April 19, 2004              Meeting with John

April 22, 2004              Third Interview with Maria

April 22, 2004              Meeting with Maria

April 26, 2004              Meeting with John

April 29, 2004              Third Interview with John

April 29, 2004              Meeting with John

May 11, 2004              Meeting with John's Advisory Board


Appendix B: Interview Protocols

Interview Protocol for Lisa Brown and Marge Bowline



People Present:


I'm talking with you today to get your input on the work of the Coalition for Schools.  I'd like to tape our discussion and I will summarize what you've said and integrate it into my final report.  I will also use some of these data as part of my dissertation research. 

[Have the interviewee read the consent form, answer any questions, have interviewee sign form and give them copy of form.  Turn on the tape recorder and test it]

1.  Since you've been involved with the Coalition have the goals of the Coalition changed or evolved?

[Probe for knowledge/understanding of the original goals]

2.  How do you view the role of the Coalition in relation to the member organizations that make up the Coalition?

[Probe for networking, streamline funding and resources]

3.   What impact do you feel the Coalition has had so far?

[Probe for impact of member organizations as well as the Coalition itself]

4.   How do you envision moving the work of the Collaborative forward?

[Probe for idea of stand-alone programming]

5.   How do you view the role of data in the work of the Coalition?

[Probe for short term and long term]

6.   How can universities help organizations like the Coalition? What kind of knowledge can they bring?

7.  What are some issues that can arise when university people, particularly researchers, work with community organizations?

[Probe for examples from our collaboration]

8.  What are some things that could make collaborations between university researchers and community organizations more successful?

9.  One of the goals of the Coalition is community ownership of student and school success.  How do you define community?

[Probe for all members that make up community of Coalition]

10. How do you think the Coalition can assess community ownership of student and school success?

[Probe based on broad definition of community]

11. Do you have any questions or is there anything you would like to add?

Follow-Up Email Interview Questions for Lisa

When we conducted our previous interview, you signed a consent form at that time.  Please review the copy of the consent form that I gave you.  Remember that you do not have to answer any question with which you are uncomfortable. 

1.  Do you feel like you had input into my hiring and the work that we did?

2.  Do you feel like communication with me was effective?

3.  What facilitated or hindered our collaboration?

4.  What did the Coalition gain through the work that I did?

5.  How is the research that I did being used/shared?

6.  Are there any issues/concerns that you had about the work we did?

7. Is there anything else you would like to comment on? 

Additional Follow-Up Questions

After reviewing the feedback that you gave though the follow-up interview, I had a few additional questions.  If you have the time to answer these, that would be great.  Thank you.

1.  I never got any feedback from you or Marge on the third report (Evaluation Report) that I did based on interview data from teachers, parents, and Coalition members.  Was that report useful in any way?

2.  Is the evaluation plan (or pieces of it) that I developed being used in any way? 

3.  You mentioned in the follow-up interview some of the work that I did that the organization was using.  Do you feel like my work brought about any change?

Interview Protocol (1st Interview with John and Maria)



People Present:

Give interviewee the memorandum of understanding in relation to the research and allow for questions. 

[Have the interviewee read the consent form, answer any questions, have interviewee sign form and give him/her copy of form.  Turn on the tape recorder and test it]

1. Tell me a little about yourself and how you came to this position.

[Probe for experiences that led to interest in working with immigrant population]

2. What experiences have you had with conducting research?

[Probe for research conducted in graduate work as well as current position]

3. What experiences have you had with researchers?

[Probe for experience with researchers in current position]

4. What is your perception of the benefits of research?

[Probe for benefits of research generally and specifically for his/her organization]

5. What is your perception of the limitations of research?

[Probe for past negative experiences with research]

6. What do you understand to be the research that I am proposing to carry out?

[Probe for understanding of CBR as well as my dissertation research]

7. What expectations do you have about my work with you?

8. What do you think we can do to make sure that we communicate effectively throughout this process?

[Probe for preferred modes of communication and important things to know about how he/she communicates.  Share some of my own communication traits]

9. Do you have any questions or is there anything else you would like to discuss?

Interview Protocol [2nd Interview with John and Maria)



People Present:

Remind of participants of consent procedures.  Review consent form signed in first interview. 

1.   Do you feel like you're having the input you want to have on the projects we're working on?

[John, probe for input on demographic data]

2. Do you feel like communication with me has been effective?

[Probe for if they feel like they are being heard]

3. Is the time-frame that we're pursuing things working for you?

[Probe for satisfaction with time commitment]

4. Are there any issues/concerns that you have about the work we're doing?

[Probe for satisfaction with work completed so far]

5. Is there anything else you would like to discuss?  Do you have any questions?

Interview Protocol (3rd Interview with John and Maria)



People Present:

Remind participants of consent procedures.  Review consent form signed in first interview. 

1.   Do you feel like you had the input that you wanted to have in our work   


[John, probe for demographics, community organizing, and surveys.  Maria, probe for surveys and community organizing]

2.  Did you feel like I valued your knowledge?

[Probe for valuing knowledge of community and knowledge of research]

3.  Do you feel like communication with me was effective?

[Probe for feeling heard]

4.  What facilitated our collaboration?

5.  What hindered our collaboration?

6.  What did you gain through the work that we did?

[Probe for gains in knowledge]

7.  What did your organization gain through the work that we did?

8.   How will the research that we did be used/shared?

[Probe for who will be allowed access to the data]

9.   Are there any issues/concerns that you had about the work we did?

10. Is there anything else you would like to comment on? Do you have any questions?

Protocol for Piloting Student Survey



People Present:


I'm from the University of Denver.  I'm working with John Brewer to develop a survey to determine whether students are satisfied with the English courses that they are taking.  We would like to get your feedback on this survey to determine whether it works well for the information we are trying to find out. 

[Discuss informed consent, go through consent form together, have them sign form.  Make sure that they are comfortable with being taped.]

1.  We are going to ask you to complete the survey and then we will discuss it.  You do not need to answer any question that makes you uncomfortable.  [Since it will be a small group, let them know that their answers will not necessarily be anonymous - I will probably know which survey belongs to each person]

2.  As you complete the survey pay attention to these three questions:

A. Are there questions that you don't understand?

B. Are there questions/directions that are confusing?

C. Are there questions that are frustrating to answer because the response options weren't adequate? 

D. Please make notes on the survey if you find a question that does not work. 

3.  As they are taking the survey, time how long it takes most people to complete it. Walk around and notice where someone gets stuck, skips an item, etc.

4.  After they have completed the survey, ask these three questions:

A. How did it feel to take the survey?

B. Anything confusing? Any bad questions?

C. Were there any questions that made you uncomfortable?

5.  Are there any questions that we should ask that we did not include?

6.  Are there any questions that we should remove?

7.  Do you have any other questions/comments? 


Appendix C:  Document From First Case Study

Potential Data Points for the Coalition for Schools

Academic Achievement Measures

1. Demographic Indicators

A. Percent of students eligible for free and reduced lunch *

B. Percent of students who are ELL (English Language Learners) *

C. Ethnicity

D. Number of Students Enrolled  

2. Intermediate Measures

A. Average daily attendance *

B. Mobility rate

C. Number of students who attended for three consecutive years*

D. Attrition/Stability (number who started in Oct. and are still at school at end of school year)*

E.  Dropout rate, broken down by ethnicity and grade level *

F.  Achievement motivation - administer survey to a sample of students at each school

G. Number of safety and discipline incidents *

H. Number of suspensions and expulsions *

I.    Student/teacher ratio during literacy instruction

J.   Average class size (do not average in specials - lowers the average and does not provide a true picture)

K.    Teacher to student ratio *

L.  Number of books checked out from the library (monthly, yearly)

M.   Number of AP classes (in proportion to number of students)

N.    Resource Inventory - Use key indicators to summarize resources.  Develop rubrics to rate accessibility of resources.  Look at: technology resources, literacy resources (in rooms and library), science lab resources, other?  Also, staff resources such as number of literacy coaches, support staff, etc. 

3. Outcome Measures

A. State Assessment scores * (1997-2002 - disaggregated)

B. ACT - grade 11 * (disaggregated)

C. ITBS scores (may only be used in pay-for-performance pilot schools)

D. Aprenda (may be eliminated)

E.  6 Trait writing assessment (may be eliminated)

F.  Brigance K-1 (used to evaluate students applying for ECE placement)

G. Basic Literacy Act Assessments (BLA) - administered quarterly

K-2  Observation survey and Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) for grade one only

2-5  DRA and Qualitative Reading Inventory I or II (QRI)

6& 7 Scholastic Reading Inventory  (SRI) 

H. District grade level math assessment K-8 (schools using Scotts-Foresman or Everyday Math curriculum will use assessments tied to the curriculum)

I.    LAS testing (levels of English proficiency)

J.   Graduation Rate, broken down by ethnicity *

K.    Number of students that continue on to postsecondary education

L.  Percentage of high school students who complete (algebra 1, algrebra 2, or geometry) or higher

M.   Number of students who pass AP exams

Data to Assess Impact in Reform Areas

1.  Recruiting and Retaining High Quality Teachers

A. Breakdown of staff according to number of years taught * (average number of years teaching also available on web *)

B. Number of teachers with graduate degrees *

C. Number of teachers teaching outside licensure area (ms & hs)

D. Number of teachers teaching without a license or who did not go through a teacher preparation program * (TIR or emergency license)

E.  Numbers of teachers teaching the subject in which they majored (ms & hs) *

F.  Rate of teacher absenteeism *

G. Teacher turnover

H. Survey or interview quality 1st year teachers at each school - what brought them there?

I.    Survey or interview quality 5th year teachers at each school - why have they stayed?

2.  Teacher Professional Development and Support

A. Assess current professional development offerings (Quantity and quality - Does each school have a plan? How is the plan developed?)

B. Survey teachers about professional development opportunities (What is working, what is not, what would they like to see offered)

C. Incorporate questions about professional development into survey/interviews used in strategy one with quality teachers, assess quality of mentoring for first year teachers

D. Assess funding support available to teachers (for books, supplies, field trips, other resources)

E.  Number of professional development days a year *

F.  Number of hours literacy coaches spend with teachers

3.  Principal Leadership

A. Number of years teaching before becoming a principal

B. Graduate degree

C. Number of years experience as a principal *

D. Number of years as principal at that school *

E.  Completed principal licensure program

F.  District school satisfaction surveys

G. Principal self evaluation (assess instructional leadership, how many hours spent in classrooms)

H. How much time in faculty meetings is spent on instructional issues (i.e. looking at student work)

I.    What professional development opportunities are offered for principals (both for current principals and those planning to become principals)

4.  Curriculum and Assessment (I would also add instruction to this strategy)

A. School Observation Measure to assess instruction

B. School Climate Inventory

C. Walk for Learning (elementary schools)

D. Curriculum being used in each school for reading, writing, mathematics

E.  Improvement plan for each school

F.  Graduation requirements (high school)

G. Develop rubric to assess implementation of the literacy plan

H. Number of internships at high school

I.    10th grade passage at high school

K.  How does each school assess student growth?

5.  Family and Community Involvement and Support

A. Attendance at parent meetings, events, teacher/parent conferences

B. Participation of parents and community in decision making at schools

C. Parent organizations

D. Survey sample of students to assess amount of parent involvement, ways parents are involved

E.  Survey sample of parents to report amount of involvement, barriers to involvement, ways they would like to be involved, ability to help with homework

F.  Contact PSE to find out about parent surveys and interviews they have conducted

G. Number of home visits conducted by school

H. Assess instructional opportunities offered for parents

I.    District school satisfaction survey

J.   Survey organizations involved in Coalition (for those not directly linked to education, what do they do to support educational efforts in community?)

K.    Assess partnerships schools have developed with organizations (are goals of partnerships aligned with instructional plans?)

L.  What are the number of community organizations involved with the Coalition

M.   What sort of grant funding are schools receiving

6.  Early Childhood Education

A. Survey kindergarten teachers - readiness of students for kindergarten

B. Number of kindergarten students who had preschool experience (daycare, preschool, headstart - if not, were they cared for at home or by a relative?)

C. Assess current ECE options available for parents in this area of the city

* Data currently available online


Appendix D:  Documents From Second Case Study

Memorandum of Understanding

I would like to work with you in carrying out a community-based research project.  The idea behind community-based research is that university researchers work in collaboration with community organizations and individuals to identify community needs and conduct research that will lead to beneficial change.  For the purposes of my dissertation, I plan to study this process of collaboration.  Some of the key questions I will be focusing on in my study include: 1) What kinds of issues arise when collaborating on a community-based research project? 2) What facilitates or hinders the process of collaboration?  3) What does the researcher gain through the collaborative process and what are the benefits for the community?  and 4) What can we learn from these experiences to inform the field of community based research? There are several requirements of my research that you need to be aware of:

1.  It is important that the research that we conduct brings in the voices of the community that is being researched through surveys or interviews so that we can determine what the community's needs are and if these needs are being served. 

2.  I would like to interview you periodically throughout the process of collaboration in relation to this process.  We would conduct the first interview early in the process and this interview would deal with expectations and past experience with research.  I will provide a consent form before the first interview. 

3.  I would like to tape all meetings as part of the data collection for my dissertation.  I would be the oaccess to these tapes.

4.  When I write up the results of my research in my dissertation, I would be writing about you and my work with you.  I would be happy to share my findings with you as we collaborate on this project. 

Areas of Research Focus

1.  Develop an accurate estimate of the numbers of non-English speaking immigrants.  Since all public services organizations need accurate data for grant writing, we will write one report with numbers that the whole community can use.  [Additional questions to consider: What is the economic impact of the immigrant population?, and Where are most immigrant populations residing within the county?]

2.  Develop a survey to measure student satisfaction with the current courses offered in the English program.

3.  How can we begin to organize the immigrant community to have a voice in the city?  (access information to find out how to start the process)

Ideas for Demographic Indicators:

1.  Get number of non-English population served for past (3, 4, or 5 years) from various organizations including: 

A. School district (number of ELL students or students born outside U.S. - can be leading indicator )

B. Number of students attending English program.

C. Number of clients being served in Diversity Office.

D. Number of births to immigrant mothers (can be leading indicator)

E.  Hospital - Numbers collected by Language Barrier Team

F.  Numbers from city and county police

G. Human services

H. Use of translations services in courts

I.    Churches

J.   Food banks

2.  Develop growth projection using comparisons in growth of total population of city and immigrant population.  Compare to growth of Latino population and do projection based on total U.S. projected growth.  Get state data on immigrant growth.

3.  See if any additional census data is available for this city

4.  Get intended residency data from INS

5.  What data do all parties currently have on the immigrant population?

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