COMM-ORG Papers 2003

Blanc et al.: From the Ground Up

| Preface | Summary | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Appendices | Cited Works and Notes | Acknowledgements and About Authors |

Works Cited

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Alinsky, Saul. (1971). Rules for radicals.  New York: Vintage.

Aspen Institute. (1996). Measuring community capacity building. Washington, DC: Author.

Blanc, Suzanne, Brown, Joanne, Nevarez-La Torre, Aida and Chris Brown. (2002). Strong neighborhoods. Strong schools – Case study: LSNA.  Chicago: Cross City Campaign for Urban School Reform. 

Castells, Manuel. (1985). The city and the grassroots.  Berkeley: University of California Press.

Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform. (1990, February). Chicago: Community Renewal Society. 1 (1).

Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform. (1991, June). Chicago: Community Renewal Society, 2 (9).

Chicago Association of Realtors. (2001).

Chicago Fact Book Consortium, ed. (1995). Local Community Fact, Chicago Metropolitan Area, 1990. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers. 

Chrislip, David and Carl Larsen. (1994). Collaborative leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Delgado, Gary. (1986). Organizing the movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

DePree, Max. (1989). Leadership is an art. Holland, MI: Shepard Foundation.

DePree, Max. (1997). Leading without power. Holland, MI: Shepard Foundation.

Designs for Change (January, 2002). Chicago’s local school councils. Chicago: Author.

Fisher, Robert. (1994). Let the people decide, neighborhood organizing in America (Rev. ed.). New York: Twayne Publishers.

Gaventa, John. (1980).  Power and powerlessness: quiescence and rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.

Gold, Eva, Simon, Elaine and Chris Brown. (2002). The power of ordinary people: Documenting the success of community organizing for school reform. Chicago: Cross City Campaign for Urban School Reform. 

Hess, Doug. (1999). Community organizing, building and developing: Their relationship to comprehensive community initiatives.  Paper presented on COMM-ORG: The On-Line Conference on Community Organizing and Development.

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  (1999).  Report on activities. Chicago: Author.

Katz, M., Fine, M., & Simon, E. (1997). Poking around: Outsiders view Chicago school reform. Teachers College Record, 99 (1), 117-157.

Keating, W. Dennis and Norman Krumholz (Eds.). (1999).  Rebuilding urban neighborhoods: Achievements, opportunities, and limits.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kretzmann, John P. and John L. McKnight. (1993). Building communities from the inside out.  Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research Neighborhood Innovations Network. 

Lappe, Francine Moore and Paul DuBois. (1994). The quickening of America.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lewis, D. A. & Nakagawa, K. (1995). Race and educational reform in the American metropolis: A study of decentralization. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Lipman, Pauline. (2002, Summer). Making the global city, making inequality: The political economy and cultural politics of Chicago school policy. American Educational Research Journal, 39 (2), 379-419.

Lukes, Steve. (1974).  Power: A Radical View.  New York: MacMillan.

Metropolitan Planning Council (1999).

Metropolitan Planning Council. (2001). Planning rental housing in the Chicago region: challenges and issues.

Padilla, Felix M. (1993). The quest for community: Puerto Ricans in Chicago.  In Joan Moore and Raquel Pinderhughes (Eds.), In the barrios: Latinos and the underclass debate. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Rast, Joel. (1999). Remaking Chicago: The political origins of urban industrial change.  DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

Sassen, Saskia.  (1991).  The global city: New York, London, and Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Shipps, D. (1997). Invisible hand: Big business and Chicago school reform. TeachersCollege Record, 99, 73-116.

Shirley, Dennis. (1997). Community organizing for urban school reform.  Austin: University of Texas Press.

Squires, Gregory D., Bennett, Larry, McCourt, Kathleen and Phillip Nyden.  (1987).  Chicago: Race, class, and the response to urban decline.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 

Stoecker, Randy.  (2002). Community development and community organizing: Apples and oranges?  Chicken and egg? Paper presented on COMM-ORG: The On-Line Conference on Community Organizing and Development.


[1] Throughout this report, all names used are pseudonyms with the exception of public officials and LSNA staff.

[2]See Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Vintage Books, New York, 1971; Robert Fisher, Let the People Decide, Neighborhood Organizing in America, updated edition, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1994.

[3] See David Chrislip and Carl Larsen, Collaborative Leadership, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, 1994; Max DePree, Leadership is an Art, Dell Publishing Group, New York, 1989, Leading Without Power, Shepard Foundation, Holland Michigan, 1997; Francis Moore Lappe and Paul DuBois, The Quickening of America, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1994.

[4]As of October 2001, fair market rent rates in Chicago, as calculated by the U.S. Office of Housing and Urban Development in 2001 were: $581 for a studio, $661 for a one bedroom, $788 for a 2 bedroom, $985 for a 3 bedroom and $1102 for a 4 bedroom (

[5]  Ibid

[6]Metropolitan Planning Council. “Providing rental housing in the Chicago region: challenges and issues.” 2001.

[7]The Chicago Association of Realtors. 2001.

[8]  The staff, like the Board and the officers, reflect the predominantly Latino make-up of Logan Square.  The Executive Director and several of the full-time organizers are white (although Spanish speaking) but virtually all of the approximately 15 person office-based staff members are Latino

[9]To preserve confidentiality, people’s real names are not used in this reportAn exception is where we are quoting directly from other public documents.

[10] An analysis conducted by RFA in May 2001 of test score data (available from the Chicago Public Schools website) showed that  7 elementary schools affiliated with the Logan Square Neighborhood Association had an average increase in students scoring above the bottom quartile in   reading on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills that was greater than the citywide average between 1991 and 2000.     In Logan Square, the percent of students in the top three national quartiles increased from 41% to 65%.  Citywide, the percent of students scoring in the top three quartiles nationally started higher, at 51%, but increased only 20 points to 71%.     The average percent of low-income students in the seven Logan Square schools was 93% in comparison to a district-wide average of 84% low-income.  The percent of students with limited English proficiency in Logan Square was 31% in comparison to 16% district-wide. 

[11]This information is based on a press release for the 32nd Annual Congress, May 1994.

[12]“Bridging social capital” refers to the networks of trust and , mutual obligation that exist across differing groups, be they linguistic, social class, or status, as with teachers and parents.

[13]  LIHTF, Low Income Housing Trust Fund, is a city program which provides rental subsidies to qualified landlords who rent at a reduced rate to qualified low-income tenants. 

[14] While she is currently an LSNA staff member, Liala once was the pastor of the Church of the Good News whose community included Lathrop Homes.

[15]  He felt strongly that his real name ought to be included.  At the 2002 Congress, Fred was elected the next LSNA president.