University City - Woodbridge Historic Area Together
A Community Study of the Woodbridge Historic District
Anthony Agbali, Jason Booza, Jennifer Creighton, Amanda Dudley, Richard Fancy, Lance Greene, Amy Howell, Kevin Johnson, Ken Kelso, Rachel Klamo, Mary Mans, Alexandria Meriano, Elizabeth Pare, Girthia Porchia, Michelle Proctor, Oliver Rue, Tim Scrimger, Joseph White, Shihong Yao.
Robert Silverman, Professor, Ramona Coates (TA) - Winter 2001 Semester
Wayne State University
April 23, 2001
This paper was written as a graduate course project in the Department of Sociology at Wayne State University, Winter 2001. We would like to acknowledge the input of residents in the Woodbridge Historic Area fortheir assistance with this research.
Feedback regarding this paper and suggestions for future projects are welcome. Please contact Rob Silverman at email@example.com to comment.
Figure 1: Map of Woodbridge Community
Table of Contents
- 1. Woodbridge Organizational Activities and Functions
- 2. Community Environment
- 3. Community Services and Programs
The Woodbridge Historic District of Detroit, Michigan has a colorful history that can still be seen today in its old-world community values. To long-term residents of Woodbridge, "neighborhood" means diverse people and a friendly community where everyone is working together to achieve common goals. Every day people are outside working on their homes and yards, and working to preserve the magnificent architecture that marks the area. Their efforts are showcased every year during the home and garden tour. But over the last few decades there have been many obstacles that Woodbridge residents have faced in their efforts to improve community life.
This project, University City - Woodbridge Historic Area Together (UC-WHAT), is a comprehensive study by graduate students at Wayne State University (WSU) of the Woodbridge Historic District. As WSU students, we are in a good position to study the community using resources available within the university system. The project has the following goals: to create a resource for the Woodbridge Historic District residents and other historic neighborhoods; to better understand the history of the community and how it led to the present social structure; to create a guide for residents to capitalize on the diverse resources in the area; to help build up and create new organizational strength in the community; and to describe the resources that exist in the community so residents can take better advantage of the services offered. These goals can strengthen the community's physical and social structure. We hope that by studying this information the residents of the Woodbridge community can take better advantage of community structures and work more effectively together.
To give the reader a snapshot of the community's history this report begins with a brief timeline of Woodbridge highlighting the history of the neighborhood and describing the major social changes that affected its growth and personality. Next we present a community profile that outlines the demographics and other statistics of the community and its residents; painting a picture of the people who live in this diverse neighborhood. An associational map identifying the organizational strengths of the communityis included. This is followed by a discussion of organizational activities which highlights the major services and functions provided by nearby organizations. The paper concludes with recommendations that suggest how the Woodbridge community might be enhanced by developing new groups and /or better collaboration among existing ones.
As a supplement, three appendices are included. Appendix A is a directory of community organizations in the Woodbridge area including phone numbers and contacts. Appendix B lists libraries and other locations where information about the Woodbridge community can be found. Appendix C is a bibliography of reference materials about community building. These appendices are provided as a resource for residents interested in doing further research. We hope that Woodbridge residents will use the information to strengthen their efforts and make the community a great place to live.
II. History and Timeline
The future of Woodbridge depends on the joint effort of its residents and local organizations. This future is connected to the past in that some residents of Woodbridge have lived in the community since the early 1960s. Some can even trace their roots back to the early 1900s. The 1980s and 1990s brought many new faces to the Woodbridge community, including professionals drawn by the historical value of the neighborhood's homes and the convenience of city living. This influx of new people has been a double-edged sword in some ways. It has promoted the rehabilitation of the historic community, but with the renewed interest some long-term residents fear that they may be displaced through gentrification; a process where property values increase to the point that older residents can no longer afford to live in the area.
The history of Woodbridge is a mirror of Detroit and Michigan history. The community stands on property first farmed by one of the state's first governor. Its fortunes have risen and fallen with the city. Now, like Detroit, it stands on the verge of a renaissance.
In the 1960s the Woodbridge community, like all of Detroit and the nation, was wracked by social unrest. But Woodbridge, because of effects of the Depression and post-war years, was not poised to withstand the unrest. These conditions were further aggravated when a large population of the community was not protected from urban renewal and some of the area was incorporated into the University City urban renewal area. Since then Woodbridge has faced population loss, urban blight, political in fighting, several rounds of redevelopment and finally gentrification. But through it all the community, one of the last pre-industrial neighborhoods in Detroit, has survived. The area may not be as elaborate and stately as it was during its inception in the late 1800s or as unified and proud as during its heyday in the early 1900s, but with brief periods of enlightenment and rehabilitation in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, Woodbridge has managed to survive. Despite suburban flight, threats of destruction from urban renewal, city neglect in financing, and being overrun by the expansion of Wayne State University, the Woodbridge community still stands.
Through local organization and involvement Woodbridge residents continue to fight for the good of their community. Although in recent years there have been incidents of in-fighting among local organizations, residents continue to champion the community's interests and work together. But it is apparent that Woodbridge saw the most progress in the eras when neighborhood organizations worked together for the good of the entire community.
The table below highlights some of the dramatic changes the Woodbridge community has witnessed since its inception, focusing on the most difficult periods for the Woodbridge community, the 1960s through the 1990s.
Table 1: Historic Timeline of Woodbridge Community
||Extent of Development|
|1800s||late 1800s||Development of Woodbridge Farms. William Woodbridge, one of the first governors of Michigan, owned one of the ribbon farms. The property was platted after his death in 1861. Many of the largest, most historic homes were built before 1900. (Map shows earliest development)|
|Early 1900s||Auto Industry Boom||Influx of autoworkers from Europe to Detroit auto factories. Blue-collar workers established themselves in the Woodbridge community, building large two flat homes, where the upstairs was rented and downstairs was their residence. These homes were called 'Home of intelligent working man' (Development around 1910)|
|1920s - 1940s||Depression and war years. This era changed the class structure of the neighborhood from upper class and upper middle class to the lower middle class and low income.|
|1945||Interstate Highway. The Detroit Industrial (Ford) Freeway was built during WWII, isolating neighborhood from north. Residents began leaving the city for the suburbs.|
|Mid 1900s||1960s||Urban Renewal A major portion of Woodbridge was declared an
urban renewal site called University City and was scheduled for demolition.
(Development prior to urban renewal)
|1967||Social Unrest Detroit riots of 1967 left many areas burned out and abandoned. Many businesses left the area and did not return.|
|1970||Citizens District Council Legislation Legislation was enacted to give neighborhoods a voice, in the wake of urban renewal. Councils were elected to represent the residents of the neighborhood and their concerns regarding development of vacant lands, and to help determine how millions of federal dollars designated for urban renewal were to be spent.|
|Woodbridge Citizens District Council (WCDC) elected.|
|1974||Woodbridge formally named to prevent naming to the area University B, by The Federal Urban Renewal project.|
|1979||HUD purchases vacant homes.
Woodbridge Historic District designation.
|Late 1900s||1981||WCDC stopped further development by WSU. Preservation Wayne Enacted numerous community programs - tree planting, sidewalk repair, alley clean up, etc.|
|1981||City historic status. Requested historic site designation by city - status never granted.|
|1983||Complaints by residents against WCDC. WCDC accused of excluding
residents from meetings.
Election fraud. Residents accused WCDC of election fraud, but election commission ignored complaints.
|1987||Revitalization. Woodbridge listed by Money Management as a place
to watch for development.
Many incoming professionals from Wayne State University and other areas purchase homes in the Woodbridge area and begin to restore them to their once-historic luster.
|1993||WCDC funding revoked. In wake of allegations of money mismanagement, the city's planning and development department seized WCDC office. Woodbridge lost $132,000 in block grant funding.|
|1994||Woodbridge Estates. 250 million dollars earmarked for redevelopment of Jeffries Housing Project - to be named Woodbridge Estates|
|1996||Aggressive city demolition program. Many historic homes demolished|
|1999||Housing Stock. More investors realizing the value of historic homes take part in the refurbishment movement - taking advantage of 25% tax credit to offset the cost of restoration|
III. COMMUNITY PROFILE
As seen in the timeline above, Woodbridge has seen significant dislocations of its housing stock and population, especially over the last fifty years. The extent of these changes can be seen more clearly by examining census data for Woodbridge during this time period. The following profile tracks these changes from 1950 to the 2000 census.
The 1960 census for Woodbridge shows a large decrease in available housing units in the area. In nineteen-fifty, 9,276 dwellings were identified in the area. In 1960, only 2,892 total dwelling units were identified. That was a loss of 6,384 units in ten years. During the same time period, Woodbridge saw a loss in overall population from 28,634 to 25,453.
Woodbridge experienced another major population loss between 1960 to 1990; as did the rest of Detroit (Figure 2 and 3). However, this loss was not proportional to that experienced by the entire city. While Detroit's decline has been steady over time, the Woodbridge decline has been more abrupt. The area saw its biggest loss between 1960 to 1970, a 43% reduction over ten years. The 1970 total population, 14,572, was only half the 1950 population. Between 1970 and 1980 there was a further drop to 3,000 residents, an 80% total decline. It is fair to say that much of this population loss was due to earlier urban renewal in the area.
Yet the 2000 census figures give hope for a Woodbridge revival, with an increase in population to 3,189, a 6% gain. In contrast, the rest of the city continues to decline. The Detroit population dropped from 1,027,974 in 1990 to 951,270 in 2000. So, while Woodbridge saw a 6% increase, Detroit saw a 7% decrease.
Figure 2: Woodbridge total Population
Figure 3: Detroit total Population
In addition to total population changes, both Woodbridge and Detroit
saw changes in race over time (see figures 4 and 5). It is important to
note that although Black and White populations declined in Woodbridge between
1970 and 2000, the Black population declined more dramatically. This was
particularly true during the Urban Renewal period.
Figure 4: Woodbridge: Racial Distribution
For a clear image of Woodbridge, it is helpful to look at the most complete data available. This is the 1990 Census Data (see Table 2). By the end of 2002, complete data from the most recent census will be publicly available.
Table 2: 1990 U.S. Census Data
|Under 5 years||274||9%||93,109||9%|
|More than 20 years||1,131||72%||690,498||67%|
|Total number employed||914||355,462|
|Clerical, kindred workers||83||9%||65,434||18%|
|Operatives, kindred workers||21||2%||3,556||1%|
|Less than $5,000||293||24%||60,104||16%|
|$150,000 or more||0||0%||975||>1%|
|Total Dwelling Units||1,631||410,027|
As you can see from Table 2, Woodbridge is similar to the city in many ways. The racial, income and age distributions of both the community and the city are very similar. However, the housing distribution is somewhat different. Woodbridge has a higher percentage of renters than the city as a whole. Also, Woodbridge has a lower percentage of people living below poverty, despite its substantial low-income (working poor) population. As the 2000 census data is released, it will be interesting to see how Woodbridge changes or remains the same, and to what degree issues of interest to renters and the working poor remain relevant to the community.
Note: Changes in census tract boundaries make it difficult to create a consistent historical portrait of the Woodbridge Historic Area. There is no equivalent tract in any census before 1990. However, by using the Geographic Information System, several tracts have been combined to create a close representation of boundaries that define Woodbridge. Therefore, the figures presented prior to 1990 are probably overstatements of the area's actual figures.
IV. WOODBRIDGE ASSOCIATIONAL MAP
|Artistic Organizations||Dance, Art|
|Charitable Groups & Drives||Goodwill Industries, Salvation Army|
|Church Groups||Bible Study Groups, Food Pantries|
|Civic Events||Winterfest, Summerfest, Garden Party|
|Community Support Groups||Hospitals, Religious Groups, Community Health Services|
|Elderly Groups||Older Adult Services, Senior Citizen Groups|
|Local Government||City Council, Ombudsman, Fire Department, Police Department,|
|Local Media||Local Newspapers, Historic Association Newsletter, College Newspaper|
|Mutual Support Groups||Alcoholics' Anonymous, Sobriety House, Aurora Young Adult|
|Neighborhood & Block Groups||Historical Association, Crime Watch, CDC|
|Outdoor Groups||Garden Club, Neighborhood Beautification|
|Political Organizations||Democrats, Republicans|
|Social Services||Family Services, Advocacy, Neighborhood Services|
|Veterans' Groups||Vietnam Veterans, Department of Veteran Affairs, Office of Military and|
|Youth Groups||Boy Scouts, Youth Center|
Woodbridge Organizational Activities and Functions: Woodbridge offers a variety of services and activities for its residents. This section details the services and activities offered and the people who might benefit from them. The Associational Map (above) lists the activities that are offered through the clubs, groups, organizations and associations in and around the Woodbridge area. Appendix A also lists these organizations by name, address and phone number.
An array of services is available to satisfy the various needs of the community. Some homeowners are especially interested in preserving the history of the community through education and home tours. Others have more interest in maintaining the neighborhood in good repair and keeping it a safe place to live. Also there are people who are more likely to use needs-oriented service programs that are offered in and around the district. Everyone uniquely benefits from community activities, services and functions in the Woodbridge district.
Community Environment: The community environment includes both attractions and areas needing improvement. Scripps Park is a convenient meeting ground for outside activities and the school playgrounds offer recreational opportunities for children and adults. In addition, the Wayne State University athletic facility adjoins the district.
The district has seven schools and a library. The Frederick Douglas Library is located on Grand River Avenue. The library offers special services for the blind, physically handicapped, shut-ins and retirees. These services include a bookmobile and door-to-door service for the homebound and older citizens. The library is also a meeting place for community organizations. The Woodbridge Historic District Association meets at the library every 3rd Thursday of the month at 6:30 p.m.
Beside the public facilities, the area has many churches and historic homes, which bring stability to the neighborhood. The district has one of the oldest continuously operated businesses in Detroit, the Patterson Dog-Cat Hospital on Grand River Avenue. There is also a strip mall on the northeast side of the district where residents can shop. The strip mall includes a Spartan grocery store, a Blockbuster video rental store, a TCF Bank and three restaurants: Little Caesar's Pizza, Subway, and the Dynasty Chinese Restaurant.
Community Services and Programs: The range of services and programs represents the needs and interests of Woodbridge residents. The Woodbridge Historic District Association provides significant support to the area. The association has gone to great lengths to try to improve the neighborhood. The members bring residents in the neighborhood together with yearly events including Winterfest, Garden Party, Summerfest, and the Home and Garden Tour. They also provide a local newsletter, The District Voice. Many of the residents enjoy these activities every year but not everyone is interested or involved in the association.
The Woodbridge Historic District Area has several different community service organizations located nearby to meet the needs of the residents. There are eleven different categories of community services that residents may need: alcoholism and substance abuse, domestic violence, vocational education, emergency services, employment assistance, family counseling, physical health, mental health, shelter/housing assistance, special programs and women's services. Many organizations providing these services are listed in Appendix A.
There is a Detroit Police Department Mini Station located at 240 W. Forest. The police department offers the following services to the residents: the Police Athletic League, Junior Police Cadets, Gun Safety Program, Neighborhood Watch Program, Date Rape Prevention Training Program, Citizen-Business Police Academy, speakers on crime prevention/self protection, Operation Kid Watch, Explorers, Security Surveys, a free senior lock installation program, McGruff the Crime Fighting Dog and the Blue Pigs Band.
In addition, the Detroit Fire Department provides the following services to the community: home fire safety inspections, free smoke detectors, and smoke detector installation for senior citizens. The Fire Department also provides meeting space for block clubs, parent groups and other community groups. And, they offer firehouse tours, fire engines for parades, in-home fire safety and arson awareness.
Neighborhood planning can be viewed as a process of political development.
A significant number of Woodbridge residents have shown a strong interest in improving their community, not only through embracing their rich history but also by participating in renewal efforts. This interest can be utilized through the mobilization of citizens in an effort to develop a neighborhood plan to meet the community's needs. There are, however obstacles to neighborhood planning. It is often difficult for neighborhood planning when the community is forced to operate in isolation or to deal with issues of outside control over local development. If community members feel that their interests are noticed, they will be more inclined to get involved.
It is, therefore, important for the Woodbridge Community to strengthen ties between the community and organizations within it, ultimately helping to implement the changes that the district needs to make in order to be a strong and vital part of the City. Open communication and sharing of information between community residents, organizations, and the City of Detroit is essential. This relationship between Woodbridge and its surrounding environment is important to provide the community with the resources necessary to attain its goals of enhancing services to residents as well as maintaining the structural integrity of the neighborhood. One tactic to aid in this communication is co-optation, which is accomplished through the involvement of local leadership in the design of services. These strategies are likely to give those who might otherwise oppose a program a greater appreciation for why it is needed and what it is intended to accomplish. Their involvement may not only nullify potential opposition but may actually increase support. Once the community forms a successful working relationship with the City of Detroit, certain pending issues will be a lot easier to tackle.
For instance, there are numerous vacant buildings in the Woodbridge area. These vacant lots and buildings make the area less attractive to potential residents and lower the value of property in the district. Vacant lots need to be cleaned up, as they are used as dumping grounds for unknown materials and substances, which increases the risk of health concerns. Since there are few playgrounds for children in the area except for those on school property, some of these vacant lots could be turned into parks.
Not only residents in the area own the lots, but also local investors as well as the City of Detroit. These landowners need to be identified and made responsible for the maintenance of the property. Negotiations could ensue for purchase of some of this property for renovation. In order to do so, however, funding sources need to identified. Examples of funding sources may include: entering into negotiations with organizations such as the United Way, preparing grant applications to federal and state governmental agencies, organizing a group of community leaders willing to sponsor an annual fund drive, and negotiation with local governmental bodies, such as with the City of Detroit.
In addition, homes can be developed on vacant lots to bring more stability into the neighborhood. The Woodbridge area is also part of the Detroit's Empowerment Zone. The Federal Enterprise/Empowerment Zone Program aims to promote community building in inner cities. The Detroit Empowerment Zone (EZ) was implemented in 1993 to address the critical needs within the city. The program reflects the community-based nature of both the process and the solutions. Under this program, the Urban Space Initiative exists to fund clean up, beautification, and assembly of parcels of vacant land and alleyways in neighborhoods through-out the EZ in cooperation with the Empowerment Zone Development Corporation, Detroit Department of Public Works, Police Department, and Community-based organizations.
Existing homes in need of reparation can be updated as well. The state provides tax credits to those who are willing to take on the task of maintaining historic structures.
For instance, homeowners or business owners in historic districts such as Woodbridge can receive a 25% credit from the state based on the following tax credit laws:
· PA 534 of 1998 provides a 25% credit for rehabilitation of historic resources by commercial/business owners; the credit is taken against the Single Business Tax.
· PA 535 of 1998 provides a 25% credit for rehabilitation of historic resources which are owner/occupied dwellings. The credit is taken against State Income Tax owed.
These tax relief programs are jointly administered by the Michigan Historical Center and Michigan Department of Treasury (information available through City of Detroit Historic Designation Advisory Board).
Building up the business community is also essential for community development of Woodbridge. There is a great need for more businesses along both Grand River and Trumbull streets. There are no doctor's offices, shops or restaurants within walking distance of the district (except for the strip-mall on Warren), yet there are many spaces on which to build new businesses. Ideas for new businesses which may flourish in this area include a coffee shop, bagel shop, and other restaurants, Additionally, the historic aspect of Woodbridge can be showcased by opening up a small museum or utilizing a historic building for a Bed & Breakfast, for example.
Although there is a fear that the growth of businesses may increase crime, this should not stand in the way of new businesses bringing money into the community. New business will promote economic growth and expand residential development. Again, Federal Enterprise/empowerment Zone Programs can enhance the capacity of minority residents to perform in economic and social realms by starting and running their own businesses. The Detroit Empowerment Zone in conjunction with The Small Business Administration (SBA) has established a One Stop Capital Shop to centralize programs offered by the SBA and local service designed to help business owners, entrepreneurs and community-based organizations determine their specific needs; and obtain access to capital and credit.
In addition to new businesses, a new community center should be considered as a way to get people involved. Community centers can offer a variety of activities, such as continuing education, financial planning, babysitting co-ops, youth programs, athletic teams, senior programs, and art/music. These activities, once under way, may open up new opportunities for community leadership. Other groups that may benefit from a community center are single parent households, senior citizens, and adults looking to further their education. Once some interest is established in the community, this may strengthen the relationship between the district and local government. To determine if there is interest in projects like a community center residents should consider developing a survey. In conjunction with this project, a question bank was developed by the authors of this report which has been distributed to some members of the Woodbridge neighborhood. The Detroit Empowerment Zone Program can assist the community in this regard as well through the Restoring and Upgrading Neighborhood Plans.
As can be seen, in order to accomplish its goals, the Woodbridge Community will need to build relationships with outside funding organizations. As indicated above, the Detroit Empowerment Zone Program is a resource that may offer the community an avenue to explore in order to gain funding. Information on the Detroit Empowerment Zone can be obtained from:
A detailed description of the various programs offered through this
program can be viewed at: http://detroit.freenet.org/EZ/
WOODBRIDGE HISTORIC AREA
DIRECTORY OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
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Germain, A. & Gagnon, J. (1999). " Is Neighborhood a Black Box? A Reply to Galster, Metzger and Waite." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(2): 172-184.
Abstract: This article is a commentary on a paper by Galster, Metzger and Waite submitted in the Housing and Neighborhood Domain Workshop of the Metropolis Third National Conference held in Vancouver in January 1999. In this paper, the neighborhood concept is discussed from a sociological standpoint, with arguments and conclusions based on several case studies based on immigration and neighborhood life.
Gonzales, M. (1997). Why Community Networking? http://bcn.boulder.co.us/community/resources/why/why.html
Abstract: This site features a piece by Gonzales, which explains how community networking can benefit groups trying to make positive social changes. She emphasizes the importance of collaborating locally and using electronic resources, especially in library environments to keep people connected to each other. She also cites specific examples of communities, which have benefited from this type of approach.
Graf, A. (1996). "Economic Development or Social Development? A Strategy for Rebuilding Inner Cities." The Review of Black Economy 24: 251-7.
Abstract: This article provides a scathing critique of the effects of modern economic redevelopment. The suggest building organizations for social development based upon the ideas of pluralism, power to act, leadership development, public relations and a commitment to help people help themselves.
Greenberg, M. & Lewis, M. (2000). "Brownfields Redevelopment, Preferences and Public Involvement: A Case Study of an Ethnically Mixed Neighborhood." Urban Studies 37(13):2501-2514.
Abstract: A survey was conducted with over 200 residents of a largely Hispanic census tract in the City of Perth Amboy, NJ, in order to identify their preferences for brownfield redevelopment and the extent to which residents want to participate in the redevelopment process.
Guest, A. (1983). and Lee, B. "The Social Organization of Local Areas." Urban Affairs Quarterly 19(2): 217-40.
Abstract: This article analyzes to forms of local level social organization in Seattle, Washington. Twenty different local communities are rated on characteristics that would make them urban villages or communities of limited liability.
Hall, P. and Spencer-Hall, D. (1982). "The Social Conditions of the Negotiated Order." Urban Life 11(3): 328-49.
Abstract: This article compares the social organization of two midwestern school districts. The conclusion based upon the comparison of the two school districts is that greater levels of citizen participation can result from higher levels of community organization within the proper organizational context.
Hammel, D. (1998). "Modeling Context and Contingency of Gentrification." Journal of Urban Affairs 20(3): 302-26.
Abstract: This study presents the examples of Chicago, Washington DC, Milwaukee and the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul to show the socioeconomic changes gentrification brings to inner cities. While the extent of this change depends upon the context in takes place in, the changes themselves are remarkably similar in the different cities.
Hasson, S. & Ley D. (1994). Neighborhood Organizations and the Welfare State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Abstract: This book tries to present hope for community organization.
Henig, J. & Gale, D. (1987). "The Political Incorporation of Newcomers to Racially Changing Neighborhoods." Urban Affairs Quarterly 22(3): 399-419.
Abstract: This study uses a case study of suburban and inner city Washington DC to look at the political implications of changing racial demographics in neighborhoods.
Henton, D., Melville, J. & Walesh, K. (1997). Grass-Roots Leaders for a New Economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Abstract: This book outlines a new form of community leaderships composed of civic entrepreneurs. The authors look to a partnership between community leadership and business to strengthen communities. Concepts are presented in chapters 1-3 and 8, while advice is given in chapters 4-7.
Hiller, H.. & Moylan, D. (1999). " Mega-Events and Community Obsolescence: Redevelopment Versus Rehabilitation in Victoria Park East." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(1): 47-81.
Abstract: This article describes the disinvestments of inner city communities using the example of Calgary.
Hintjens, H. (2000). " Environmental Direct Action in Australia : The Case of Jabiluka Mine." Community Development Journal 35(4): 377-390.
Abstract: A subsidiary of the Australia company North Ltd (ERA) has been mining uranium at Ranger mine since 1970s. When ERA proposed opening a second uranium mine at Jabiluka, the Jabiluka Action Group was formed to oppose this move. The combination of legal actions, shareholder protests, direct action and appeals to international bodies have prevented significant development of the mine site at Jabiluka.
Hoatson, L. (2001). " Community Development Practice Surviving New Right Government : A British and Victorian Comparison." Community Development Journal 36(1): 18-29.
Abstract: For most of the nineties , the Australian state of Victoria was led by a new right government and community development (CD) practice had difficulty surviving. Community workers wondered whether Britain's CD experience had anything to teach those struggling 'down under'. This paper is based on British and Victorian research undertaken in 1998.
Hoggett, P. & Miller, C. (2000). " Working with Emotions in Community Organizations." Community Development Journal 35(4): 352-364.
Abstract: This article argues that the emotional life of community organizations and their members has been a neglected feature of the community development process and one that has been detrimental to their strength and vitality.
Jeffers, L., and Dobos, J. (1984). "Communication and Neighborhood Mobilization." Urban Affairs Quarterly 20(1): 97-112.
Abstract: The authors of this article present an analysis of the variables that influence neighborhood mobilization. The perceptual frames of the residence, the commitment they have to the community, their social status and communication all effect mobilization. Communication serves to mediate the influences of the other three variables in most instances. Communication is therefore crucial to neighborhood mobilization.
Johnson, L. (1999). "Bringing Work Home: Developing a Model Residentially-Based Telework Facility." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(2): 119-142.
Abstract: Telecommunications advances have resulted in increasing numbers of jobs being transferred to the home. This article analyzes this issue.
Joyner, F. (2000). "Bridge Puilding: Enhancing the Possibility of Partnerships." Journal for Quality & Participation 23(3): 39-43.
Abstract: Joyner relates the idea of building bridges physically to forming connections within the structure of a struggling community. She highlights the importance of treating the community as a system and looking seriously at the civic infrastructure.
Kay, A. (2000). " Art and Community Development: The Role the Arts have in Regenerating Communities." Community Development Journal 35(4): 414-424.
Abstract: This paper is based on a study that shows that the arts have a role in regeneration and at a local level can be used as a tool within a wider community development programme.
Kerstein, R. (1990). "Stage Models of Gentrification: An Examination." Urban Affairs Quarterly 25(4): 620-639.
Abstract: Kerstein presents four stages of gentrification, originals, risk-oblivious, risk-prone and risk-adverse. Using a case study of the Hyde Park community in Tampa, Florida, the differences between the individuals comprising each stage group in age, occupation, education, number of children, and location of prior residence is shown.
Kramnick, I. & Moore, R. (1997). "Can Churches Save the Cities? Faith-Based Services and the Constitution." American Prospect 35: 47-53.
Abstract: The basic argument of this article is that religious organizations can strengthen and help improve communities. The authors do not advocate these religious organizations pressing their beliefs too firmly upon others.
Langlois, A. & Kitchen, P. (2001). "Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census data." Urban Studies 38(1): 119-139.
Abstract: This paper uses data from 1996 Canadian census to examine and measure the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. It found that urban deprivation is not confined to the inner city, as several of the most severely deprived neighborhoods are located outside the central city and even in the off-Island suburbs.
Lee, B. & Hodge, D. (1984). "Social Differentials in Metropolitan Residential Displacement." In Palen, J. & London, B. (Eds.). Gentrification, Displacement and Neighborhood Revitalization, pp. 140-169. Albany: State University of New York Press.
London, S. (1995). Collaboration and Community. http://www.scottlondon.com/reports/ppcc.html
Abstract: In his paper prepared for Pew Partnership for Civic Change, London explains in detail what is meant by collaboration at the civic level. He discusses the two types of collaborations: those that resolve conflict, and those that develop or advance future vision. He also explains a three-phase process to collaboration and how leadership qualities must fit in with this process in order to be successful in building a collaborative community.
Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2000). "Revisiting Inner City Strips: A Framework for Community and Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly 14(2): 165-81.
Abstract: Strip developments have historically been a resource for inner city neighborhoods, but they have seen significant decline since the 1950's with increased population mobility. Efforts to refurbish whole blocks as a group with repaired and painted exteriors, new windows and entrances usually results in increased economic activity and reductions in the presence of undesirable actors like gang members, prostitutes and criminals. Local merchant associations can be organized to implement these changes with other CBOs.
Mattessich, P. & Monsey, B. (1997). Community Building: What Makes it Work. St. Paul: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.
Abstract: The authors present a model of community building initiatives and list possible factors may make these initiatives successful.
Mayfield, L, Hellwig, M, & Banks, B. (1999). "The Chicago Response to Urban Problems- Building University-Community Collaborations." American Behavioral Scientist 42(5): 863-875.
Abstract: The authors of this case study give a history of the relationship between the community and universities in the Chicago area. They also highlight the initiatives, which have been formed since the realization was made that the two institutions needed to work together. To conclude the authors explain what lessons were learned from these types of collaborations.
McLeod, H. & Mosely, M. (1997). "The Role of Youth in Community Renewal." National Civic Review 86: 191-271.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of work done on community development and the role of youth in this.
McKnight, J. (1995). The Careless Society: Community and Its Counterfeits. New York: Basic Books.
Abstract: McKnight theorizes that the reason for weak communities is that institutions, categorized by professionalism, medicine, human services systems and the criminal justice system, seek to replace community ties with their own cold and unresponsive services. Caring involves citizens interacting with other citizens, not institutions.
Medoff, P. & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.
Abstract: This book presents a case study of the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative in Boston, were a poor neighborhood was able to affect limited, but continuing improvement.
Millward, H. (2000). "The Spread of Commuter Development in the Eastern Shore Zone of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1920-1988." Urban History Review 29(1): 21-32.
Abstract: This study uses evidence from archival and recent topographic maps to plot developing patterns of commuter-induced residential construction in the Eastern Shore sector of the Halifax commuter zone. The results may be useful for anticipation and control of future development.
Millward, H. & Bunting, T. (1999). " A Tale of Two CBDs II: The Internal Retail Dynamics of Downtown Halifax and Downtown Kitchener." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(1): 1-27.
Abstract: This study examines downtown structural change through an analysis of the post-World War II reorganization of CBD(central business district) retailing in contrasting medium-sized cities. The authors' map occupied and vacant retail locations in each CBD for the early 1950s and the early 1990s. The authors conclude that, in the absence of certain regional and local pre-conditions, publicly funded revitalization projects can do little to arrest downtown retail decline.
Moorer, P. & Suurmeijer, T. (2001). "The Effects of neighborhoods on Size of Social Network of the Elderly and loneliness: A Multilevel Approach" Urban Studies 38( 1): 105-118.
Abstract: The goal of the authors was to find out how much influence neighborhoods have on the size of the social network and loneliness of elderly people. It is concluded that the elderly mostly have substantially sized social networks and few feelings of loneliness. Social networks and loneliness are probably more strongly related to the psychological or social characteristics of individuals and are hardly influenced by the characteristics of neighborhoods.
Morrison, J., Howard, J., Johnson, C., Navarro, F. & Plachetka, Beth (1997). "Strengthening Neighborhoods by Developing Community Networks." Social Work 42(5): 527-34.
Abstract: This case study of a community development project in Aurora, Illinois provides a useful outline of effective community involvement. Using a series of community networks based in a local school, one neighborhood was able to reduce crime levels and increase academic performance in their community. The partnership of the school programs, parents, social workers, police and academics worked effectively in strengthening this neighborhood.
Morrissey, J. (2000). " Indicators of Citizen Participation: Lessons from Learning Teams in Rural EZ/EC Communities." Community Development Journal 35(1): 59-74.
Abstract: Indicators of citizen participation are drawn from a pilot study of participatory evaluation by Learning Teams at 10 rural sites of the Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities Program. Separating indicators of participation from project impacts is useful to gauge the level and quality of participation in the ongoing development process (process indicators), the impact of participation on self-development and community capacity (developmental indicators), and the impact of participation on policy or change (instrumental indicators). Participation indicators developed through a participatory process can help agencies and organizations assess and strengthen participation and sustain it beyond the initial planning stages of development.
Moyer, A., Coristine, M., MacLean, L., & Meyer, M. (1999). "A Model for Building Collective Capacity in Community-Based Programs: The Elderly in Need Project." Public Health Nursing 16(3): 205-214.
Abstract: This study is an example of how initiatives to improve some aspect of a community in need can have the result of building community capacity. In this example, the authors studied the community and designed an intervention to aid the community in developing its resources to be better able to care for its elderly community members.
Murray, M. (2000). " Social Capital Formation and Healthy Communities: Insights from the Colorado Healthy Communities Initiative." Community Development Journal 35(2): 99-108.
Abstract: The paper examines the construction made by the Colorado Healthy Communities Initiative to the practice of community led development.
Popple, K. & Redmond, M. (2000). " Community Development and the Voluntary Sector in the New Millennium: the Implications of the Third Way in the UK." Community Development Journal 35(4): 391-400.
Abstract: The New Labour's election in May 1997 introduced the notion of the Third Way. The volunteer sector is emerging as an influential provider of welfare services, which has given community development a funding boost. However, in this context there is a danger that community development will again be used as a tool to placate disaffected communities. This runs counter to community development's core values of acting as a liberator among the poorest in the society.
Ramsay, M. (1998). "Redeeming the City: Exploring the Relationship Between Church and Metropolis." Urban Affairs Review 33(5): 595-626.
Abstract: Ramsay argues in this article that community organization, which was formerly lead by the political left, is now being directed by religious leadership. Religion, typified by activist, civic, sanctuary or evangelistic approaches, provided the drive for continued community organizing. The factors that make it possible for religion to continue this leadership in community organization are their creeds, their institutional status, their sub cultural natures, their relief of nihilistic feelings and their endurance.
Ravenscroft N., (2000). "The Vitality and Viability of Town Centers" Urban Studies 37(13): 2533- 2549.
Abstract: Following growing concerns about the future of many town centers in the UK, this paper considers the factors that contribute to measuring and understanding their continuing health. Recognizing that past studies have tended to concentrate on measures of relative performance between towns, the paper presents a methodology for analysis at the micro level, distinguishing between both the relative and the absolute performance of different areas within individual town centers.
Roberts, C. (1999). "What Do You Mean, Teams are not Enough?" Journal for Quality & Participation 22(4): 64-65.
Abstract: In this work, Roberts applies the principles of teamwork to the community environment. He asserts that the foundations that make teamwork function well in businesses, and other organizations will also operate in communities. Roberts also discusses possible problems with this model.
Robinson, T. (1995). "Gentrification and Grassroots Resistance in San Francisco's Tenderloin." Urban Affairs Review 30(4): 483-513.
Abstract: Robinson presents a case study of the Tenderloin in San Francisco. The idea of a dual city is shown with high-rises existing with slums and service professionals residing near service dependents. San Francisco has resisted uncontrolled urban development with neighborhood sensitive planned growth that protects the integrity of urban communities.
Rutheiser, C. (1997). "Making Place in the Nonplace Urban Realm: Notes on the Revitalization of Downtown Atlanta." Urban Anthropology 26(1): 9-41.
Abstract: Atlanta, Georgia has been a leader in population growth and job creation in the United States for several decades. This article brings to light the deterioration of the inner city that has gone unnoticed in Atlanta. The hosting of the 1996 Olympic Games brought a renewed interest in the revitalization on the downtown area. The gentrification efforts in the city have only severed as a quick patch upon the deep-rooted structural problems that face urban areas.
Shaw, M. & Martin, I. (2000). " Community Work, Citizenship and Democracy: Re-Making the Connections." Community Development Journal 35(4):401-413.
Abstract: The authors think that at a time when community work seems to be so directly tied to the apron strings of the state, it is all the more important to stand back and take stock.
Shaw, R. (1999). Reclaiming America: Nike, Clean Air and the New National Activism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Abstract: Shaw describes the strengths of community based non-profit organizations as well as their weaknesses. He shows the potential grass-roots organizations have to improve society.
Smith, N., Littlejohns, L. & Thompson, D. (2001). " Shaking Out the Cobwebs: Insights Into Community Capacity and Its Relation to Health Outcomes." Community Development Journal 36(1): 30-41.
Abstract: The authors are health promotion and community development practitioners in the David Thompson Health Region of rural central Alberta. In this paper community capacity building is defined and its importance for the work of health promotion and community development practitioners is outlined. They indicated some directions for further research. Their work provide guidance on how to deliver health promotion in order to more effectively strengthen and empower communities.
Smith, N. & LeFaivre, M. (1984). "Social Differentials in Metropolitan Residential Displacement." In Palen, J. & London, B. (Eds.), Gentrification, Displacement and Neighborhood Revitalization, pp. 140-169. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Stoecker, R. (1999). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs 19(1): 1-22.
Abstract: This article criticizes CDCs for failing in many instances to effect community improvement. Stoecker suggest that communities should concentrate on developing community organizations to improve urban areas. Community controlled planning and the use of multi-local CDC accountable to the individual communities would produce better results than the traditional CDC model.
Stoutland, S. (1999). "Levels of the Community Development System: A Framework for Research and Practice." Urban Anthropology 28(2): 165-91.
Abstract: This article presents a framework for the classification of community organizations. Four levels of organizations are provided. The basic goals of the various levels are similar, but because of their different perspectives conflict may arise. Better communication and understanding among the different levels may help reduce this level of conflict.
Turner, R. (1999). "Entrepreneurial Neighborhood Initiatives: Political Capital in Community Development." Economic Development Quarterly 13(1): 15-22.
Abstract: Community based organizations will find different degrees of success depending on the amount of social and political capital they can project. Communities with high capital can expect to receive high degrees of trust from granting institutions and bureaucracies and communities with low social / political capital will receive smaller grants and can expect tighter scrutiny of their actions.
Von Hoffman, A. (1994). Local Attachments: The Making of an American Neighborhood, 1850 to 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Abstract: The author presents a historical account of the development of the Jamaica Plain neighborhood in Boston. This history can be generalized to a history of urban development.
Wagner, G.. (1995). "Gentrification, Reinvestment and Displacement in Baltimore." Journal of Urban Affairs 17(1): 81-96.
Abstract: This article shows an exception to the normal tendency for gentrification to produce displacement among minorities and the lower class. This case study of Baltimore examines four census tracks from 1980 and 90 showing the expected increases in new construction and property values with a decrease in household density. It also shows an increase in minority residence and in subsidized housing in these areas.
Wallis, A., Crocker, J.P., & Schechter, B. (1998). "Social Capital and Community Building: Part One." National Civic Review 87(3): 253-271.
Abstract: This article reviews the major theory presented by Robert Putnam in his essay, "Bowling Alone". Putnam asserts that communities are losing their social capital - that is, their networks, and norms of civic engagement. The authors explain how social capital comes in three forms: Information Sharing, Generalized reciprocity, and Norms and Values. In addition, they discuss a framework of nine factors, which can be used to develop healthy communities.
Watt, S., Higgins, C. & Kendrick, A. (2000). " Community Participation in the Development of Services: a Move Towards Community Empowerment." Community Development Journal 35(2): 120-132.
Abstract: The principal aim of this community study was to devise a model to be employed by a Council in the east of Scotland -for engaging local people in the identification and assessment of expressed need and unmet need in relation to early years services.
Weech-Maldonado, R., & Merrill, S. (2000). "Building Partnership with the Community: Lessons from the Camden Health Improvement Learning Collaborative." Journal of Healthcare Management 45(3): 189-205.
Abstract: The authors of this case study examine the Camden City Health Improvement Learning Collaborative, a community care network formed in 1993, as an example of successful community initiatives. The authors emphasize how the community can be a partner with outside practitioners in improving the overall health of the community.
Williams, B. (1985). "Owning Places and Buying Time: Class, Culture and Stalled Gentrification." Urban Life 14(3): 251-73.
Abstract: This article is based upon a participant observation analysis of a neighborhood were the gentrification process has stalled. Conflict between new owner and long-time male renters, landlords and female renters and Black and Latino renters arose as fear of displacement descended upon the community. These conflicts reflect the disparity of resources and traditions among the different groups, as well as differing visions of the groups place in the community and contrasting ways for making the neighborhood a home.
Williams, C. & Windebank, J. (2000) " Helping Each Other Out?: Community Exchange in Deprived Neighborhoods." Community Development Journal 35(2): 146-156.
Abstract: In the light of high unemployment in deprived neighborhoods, this paper considers whether community exchange is being used as a coping strategy. It finds that community exchange currently reinforces the plight of the poorest in this deprived neighborhood. This paper asserts that unless action is taken to re-build community exchange, these population will continue to be unable to satisfy their basic needs and wants.
Wilson, P. (1997). "Building Social Capital: A Learning Agenda for the Twenty-First Century." Urban Studies 34(5-6): 745-60.
Abstract: Wilson's article deals with the concept of social capital. The main goal that should be pursued in developing social capital is that of improving the individuals within the community. Understanding and learning among the different groups in a community and an emphasis on strengthening social relationships will help in this process.
Woliver, L. (1993). From Outrage to Action: The Politics of Grass-Roots Dissent. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Abstract: This book presents a description of the process of grass-roots resistance to various forms of social change.
Wyly, E. & Hammel, D. (1998). Modeling the Context and Contingency of Gentrification. Journal of Urban Affairs, 20 (3): 303-26.
Yeung, H., Wai-chung, P., Martin, J. & P. (2001). "Towards a Regional Strategy." Urban Studies, Vol. 38(1): 157-183.
Abstract: This paper presents a framework for analyzing the role of regional headquarters in the globalization strategies of transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors argue that the triadization and regionalization of TNC activities increase the demand for control and co-ordination functions previously performed by the global headquarters. Many global corporations consequently establish regional headquarters to penetrate into emerging markets and to achieve simultaneously global integration and local responsiveness.