University City - Woodbridge Historic Area Together

Title Page and ContentsIntroduction | History and Timeline | Community Profile | Woodbridge Associational Map | Recommendations | Appendix A | Appendix B | Appendix C


Literature Search Bibliography

Arun, M. & Yap, M. (2000). "Singapore: The Development of an Intelligent Island and Social Dividends of Information Technology." Urban Studies 37(10): 1749-1756.

Abstract: The paper traces the development of Singapore as an 'intelligent' island through an identification of the various social policy arrangement which have harnessed new information technology modes in their delivery.

Babacan, H. (2001) " Community Work Partnerships in a Global Context." Community Development Journal 36(1): 3-17.

Abstract: The current changes in society have had enormous impact on communities and have caused a great level of social unease and restructuring. This paper examines the impact of global changes on communities at a macro level and their implication for community organizing and community development.

Baker, J. (1995). "Citizen Participation and Neighborhood Organization." Urban Affairs Review 30(6): 880-7.

Abstract: Baker presents a book review essay concerning the effects of citizen participation upon neighborhood organization. The main theme seen throughout these works is that neighborhood participation increases levels of community organization, which leads to community improvement.

Berry, J. P. & Thompson, K. (1993). The Rebirth of Urban Democracy. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Abstract: The authors present an analysis of urban community participation and the government's response to community empowerment.

Blomley, N. (1998). "Landscape and Property." Law & Society Review 32(3): 567-612.

Abstract: Blomley analyzes the concepts of property, landscape and power.

Bockmeyer, J. (2000). "A Culture of Distrust: the Impact of Local Political Culture on Participation in the Detroit EZ" Urban Studies 37(13): 2417-2440.

Abstract: A political culture approach is used to explore EZ participation as a response to patterns of past development decision-making. The author examines Detroit's economic development policy-making culture and assesses its impact on the formation of the community development corporation (CDC) network that dominated EZ planning in the initial stages.

Bollens, S. (2000). " Community Development in Democratic South Africa." Community Development Journal 35(2): 167-180.

Abstract: This article describe how developmental and democratization imperatives are confronting policymakers in post-apartheid South Africa with difficult choices in efforts to restructure government-community relations. It is based on a set of interviews with community leaders and government officials in Johannesburg in mid-1995.

Bourne, L.. & Lorius, A. (1999). " How Similar are Urban Neighborhoods in Canada? A Classification Based on External Environments." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(2): 143-171.

Abstract: The question of how different or similar urban areas and neighborhoods in Canada actually are has been of long-standing research interest. This paper addressed part of that question. The paper concludes that census neighborhoods do differ systematically by city size and region , with the most distinctive being those in the large metropolitan areas, and those in Quebec and the Atlantic regions.

Bradshaw, T. (2000). "Complex Community Development Projects : Collaboration, Comprehensive Programs, and Community Coalitions in Complex Cociety." Community Development Journal 35(2): 133-145.

Abstract: The organizations examined in this paper show that well-designed projects can damage complex tasks. However, the organizational cost of complexity in terms of administrative time and coordination is unnecessarily high.

Bridgman , R. & Bridgman, W. (2000). "Regulatory Hurdles to Conserving Heritage Property in Toronto." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 9(1): 23-41.

Abstract: This article examines heritage regulations and policies in relation to standardized processes for building permit approval. The effects of certain regulations and policies on cost and quality of conservation are explored through several case studies based in Toronto.

Bunting, T., et al. (2000). " Housing Strategies for Downtown Revitalization in Mid-Size cities: A City of Kitchener Feasibility Study." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 9(2): 145-175.

Abstract: This paper reports on a research project undertaken by the City of Kitchener with the aim of setting the groundwork for a new policy agenda to bring more housing to its downtown and inner-city neighborhoods. It concludes with a summary of strategies deemed necessary to attract additional residents to Kitchener's core area.

Cameron, C. & Gatewood, J. (1994). "The Authentic Interior: Questing Gemeinschaft in Post-Industrial Society." Human Organization 53(1): 21-32.

Abstract: The authors present a case study of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to show the appeal of a gemeinschaft like community to modern people. The lure of this community is the small town charm found in an urban setting.

Cannan, C. (2000). " The Environmental Crisis, Greens and Community Development." Community Development Journal 35(4): 365-376.

Abstract: Community development should engage with green social thought and practice. Democracy tends to be a weak value in greenism , and community poorly conceptualized, so that community development, with its expertise in participation in building socially just communities, has much to offer environmentalist action.

Carlson, C (1999). "Let's Reinvent 'Mediating Institutions.'" National Civic Review 88(3): 207-209.

Abstract: Carlson discusses the importance of community-level action in making large-scale urban change. He also highlights how the "mediating institutions" in the community - churches, schools, and governments play a key role in allowing for these kinds of changes.

Cebulla, A. (2000). " Trusting Community Developers: the Influence of the Form and Origin of Community Groups on Residents' Support in Northern Ireland." Community Development Journal 35(2): 109-119.

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a survey-based analysis of residents' expressions of trust in local community groups active in public-community partnerships in Northern Ireland. It shows that the type of community group is a major influence on residents' belief in the representativeness of a group, but not their assessment of a group's ability to deliver successful regeneration.

Champlin, D. (1998). "The Privatization of Community: Implications for Urban Policy." Journal of Economic Issues 32(2): 595-603.

Abstract: Champlin describes a trend towards greater privatization in neighborhoods in the United States. Both the benefits and disadvantages of this trend are described.

Chrislip, D. & Larson, C. (1994). Collaborative Leadership: How Citizens and Civic Leaders Can Make a Difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Cowan, S., Rohe, W. & Baku, E. (1999). "Factors Influencing the Performance of Community Development Corporations." Journal of Urban Affairs 21(3): 325-40.

Abstract: This article examines the factors that may influence the performance of Community Development Corporations. The levels of success for CDCs can be measured through the survival of the organizations, whether they achieve their stated goals and how efficiently those goals are achieved.

Craig, G., Mayo, M. & Taylor, M. (2000). " Globalization from below: implications for the Community Development Journal." Community Development Journal 35(4): 323-335.

Abstract: The context for discussions of globalization is set out in relation to the appropriate response by those interested and /or active in community development.

Crocker, J. (2000). "Reflections on the Program for Community Problem Solving." National Civic Review 89(2): 155-160.

Abstract: Crocker gives many examples of how to define community and how group formation has changed through time. In addition, he explained that for change to occur in a community leadership styles must change, face-to-face dialogue must be emphasized, and the technology bridge between the have and the have-nots must be considered.

Dabinet, G. (2000). " Regenerating Communities in the UK: Getting Plugged into the Information Society?" Community Development Journal 35(2): 157-166.

Abstract: Information and communication technologies are of growing importance, and emerging community economic development policies and practices have begun to recognize this in their support of a wide range of projects. The paper argues for the policy discourses of integration, identity and power to be fully considered in the design and implementation of projects and strategies.

Drummond, L. (2000). "Street Scenes: Practices of Public and Private Space in Urban Vietnam." Urban Studies 37 (12): 2377-2391.

Abstract: This paper contributes an initial venture into thinking about the uses of the terms 'public' and 'private' space in the context of Vietnamese urban life.

Fisher, R. (1994). Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Abstract: Fisher believes that democracy seems to be dying in America. The emergence of grass-roots organizations shows hope for the democratic process. Fisher analyzes the worldwide trend toward local community resistance to unwanted change.

Fisher, R. & Romanofsky, P. (1981). Community Organization for Urban Social Change: A Historical Perspective. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Abstract: Two dominant traditions of community organization are presented in this history of community organizations efforts.

Fulton, W. (1996). "Planning and Citizenship." National Civic Review 85: 37-40.

Abstract: Fulton presents an argument that citizen involvement has taken on the characteristics of a one-way model, which concentrates on single issues. People need to look beyond their own interest and pursue goals that will better the community; even if is contrary to their own desires. He uses the example of the Santa Monica rent wars as an example of how citizens can become involved in social planning.

Felsenstein, D. (1996). "The University in the Metropolitan Arena: Impacts and Public Policy Implications." Urban Studies 33(9): 1565-80.

Abstract: This article review the effect the presence of universities has upon cities, using a case study of Chicago and Northwestern University.

Flower, J. (1998). "A Toolkit for Building a Healthy City." National Civic Review 87(4): 293-310.

Abstract: Flower presents the foundations that he feels are necessary for cities to grow stronger and make considerable improvements. He outlines the six prerequisites of leadership capacity (one of which is seeing community assets), the five fundamentals to thrive in a changing environment, maps out the environmental, readiness, and diffusion qualities of a community, and gives the 18 skills necessary for change in a community.

Fredericksen, P. (2000). "Disconnect in the Hollow State: the Pivotal role of Organizational Capacity in Community Based Organizations." Public Administration Review 60(3): 230-9.

Abstract: Community based Organizations are most likely to be successful if they have a clear vision and mission statement along with a budget and budgetary controls. However, CBOs are likely to be dissimilar and disengaged from their constituencies by being more educated and autocratic in operation; denying community input.

Germain, A. & Gagnon, J. (1999). " Is Neighborhood a Black Box? A Reply to Galster, Metzger and Waite." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(2): 172-184.

Abstract: This article is a commentary on a paper by Galster, Metzger and Waite submitted in the Housing and Neighborhood Domain Workshop of the Metropolis Third National Conference held in Vancouver in January 1999. In this paper, the neighborhood concept is discussed from a sociological standpoint, with arguments and conclusions based on several case studies based on immigration and neighborhood life.

Gonzales, M. (1997). Why Community Networking?

Abstract: This site features a piece by Gonzales, which explains how community networking can benefit groups trying to make positive social changes. She emphasizes the importance of collaborating locally and using electronic resources, especially in library environments to keep people connected to each other. She also cites specific examples of communities, which have benefited from this type of approach.

Graf, A. (1996). "Economic Development or Social Development? A Strategy for Rebuilding Inner Cities." The Review of Black Economy 24: 251-7.

Abstract: This article provides a scathing critique of the effects of modern economic redevelopment. The suggest building organizations for social development based upon the ideas of pluralism, power to act, leadership development, public relations and a commitment to help people help themselves.

Greenberg, M. & Lewis, M. (2000). "Brownfields Redevelopment, Preferences and Public Involvement: A Case Study of an Ethnically Mixed Neighborhood." Urban Studies 37(13):2501-2514.

Abstract: A survey was conducted with over 200 residents of a largely Hispanic census tract in the City of Perth Amboy, NJ, in order to identify their preferences for brownfield redevelopment and the extent to which residents want to participate in the redevelopment process.

Guest, A. (1983). and Lee, B. "The Social Organization of Local Areas." Urban Affairs Quarterly 19(2): 217-40.

Abstract: This article analyzes to forms of local level social organization in Seattle, Washington. Twenty different local communities are rated on characteristics that would make them urban villages or communities of limited liability.

Hall, P. and Spencer-Hall, D. (1982). "The Social Conditions of the Negotiated Order." Urban Life 11(3): 328-49.

Abstract: This article compares the social organization of two midwestern school districts. The conclusion based upon the comparison of the two school districts is that greater levels of citizen participation can result from higher levels of community organization within the proper organizational context.

Hammel, D. (1998). "Modeling Context and Contingency of Gentrification." Journal of Urban Affairs 20(3): 302-26.

Abstract: This study presents the examples of Chicago, Washington DC, Milwaukee and the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul to show the socioeconomic changes gentrification brings to inner cities. While the extent of this change depends upon the context in takes place in, the changes themselves are remarkably similar in the different cities.

Hasson, S. & Ley D. (1994). Neighborhood Organizations and the Welfare State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Abstract: This book tries to present hope for community organization.

Henig, J. & Gale, D. (1987). "The Political Incorporation of Newcomers to Racially Changing Neighborhoods." Urban Affairs Quarterly 22(3): 399-419.

Abstract: This study uses a case study of suburban and inner city Washington DC to look at the political implications of changing racial demographics in neighborhoods.

Henton, D., Melville, J. & Walesh, K. (1997). Grass-Roots Leaders for a New Economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Abstract: This book outlines a new form of community leaderships composed of civic entrepreneurs. The authors look to a partnership between community leadership and business to strengthen communities. Concepts are presented in chapters 1-3 and 8, while advice is given in chapters 4-7.

Hiller, H.. & Moylan, D. (1999). " Mega-Events and Community Obsolescence: Redevelopment Versus Rehabilitation in Victoria Park East." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(1): 47-81.

Abstract: This article describes the disinvestments of inner city communities using the example of Calgary.

Hintjens, H. (2000). " Environmental Direct Action in Australia : The Case of Jabiluka Mine." Community Development Journal 35(4): 377-390.

Abstract: A subsidiary of the Australia company North Ltd (ERA) has been mining uranium at Ranger mine since 1970s. When ERA proposed opening a second uranium mine at Jabiluka, the Jabiluka Action Group was formed to oppose this move. The combination of legal actions, shareholder protests, direct action and appeals to international bodies have prevented significant development of the mine site at Jabiluka.

Hoatson, L. (2001). " Community Development Practice Surviving New Right Government : A British and Victorian Comparison." Community Development Journal 36(1): 18-29.

Abstract: For most of the nineties , the Australian state of Victoria was led by a new right government and community development (CD) practice had difficulty surviving. Community workers wondered whether Britain's CD experience had anything to teach those struggling 'down under'. This paper is based on British and Victorian research undertaken in 1998.

Hoggett, P. & Miller, C. (2000). " Working with Emotions in Community Organizations." Community Development Journal 35(4): 352-364.

Abstract: This article argues that the emotional life of community organizations and their members has been a neglected feature of the community development process and one that has been detrimental to their strength and vitality.

Jeffers, L., and Dobos, J. (1984). "Communication and Neighborhood Mobilization." Urban Affairs Quarterly 20(1): 97-112.

Abstract: The authors of this article present an analysis of the variables that influence neighborhood mobilization. The perceptual frames of the residence, the commitment they have to the community, their social status and communication all effect mobilization. Communication serves to mediate the influences of the other three variables in most instances. Communication is therefore crucial to neighborhood mobilization.

Johnson, L. (1999). "Bringing Work Home: Developing a Model Residentially-Based Telework Facility." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(2): 119-142.

Abstract: Telecommunications advances have resulted in increasing numbers of jobs being transferred to the home. This article analyzes this issue.

Joyner, F. (2000). "Bridge Puilding: Enhancing the Possibility of Partnerships." Journal for Quality & Participation 23(3): 39-43.

Abstract: Joyner relates the idea of building bridges physically to forming connections within the structure of a struggling community. She highlights the importance of treating the community as a system and looking seriously at the civic infrastructure.

Kay, A. (2000). " Art and Community Development: The Role the Arts have in Regenerating Communities." Community Development Journal 35(4): 414-424.

Abstract: This paper is based on a study that shows that the arts have a role in regeneration and at a local level can be used as a tool within a wider community development programme.

Kerstein, R. (1990). "Stage Models of Gentrification: An Examination." Urban Affairs Quarterly 25(4): 620-639.

Abstract: Kerstein presents four stages of gentrification, originals, risk-oblivious, risk-prone and risk-adverse. Using a case study of the Hyde Park community in Tampa, Florida, the differences between the individuals comprising each stage group in age, occupation, education, number of children, and location of prior residence is shown.

Kramnick, I. & Moore, R. (1997). "Can Churches Save the Cities? Faith-Based Services and the Constitution." American Prospect 35: 47-53.

Abstract: The basic argument of this article is that religious organizations can strengthen and help improve communities. The authors do not advocate these religious organizations pressing their beliefs too firmly upon others.

Langlois, A. & Kitchen, P. (2001). "Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census data." Urban Studies 38(1): 119-139.

Abstract: This paper uses data from 1996 Canadian census to examine and measure the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. It found that urban deprivation is not confined to the inner city, as several of the most severely deprived neighborhoods are located outside the central city and even in the off-Island suburbs.

Lee, B. & Hodge, D. (1984). "Social Differentials in Metropolitan Residential Displacement." In Palen, J. & London, B. (Eds.). Gentrification, Displacement and Neighborhood Revitalization, pp. 140-169. Albany: State University of New York Press.

London, S. (1995). Collaboration and Community.

Abstract: In his paper prepared for Pew Partnership for Civic Change, London explains in detail what is meant by collaboration at the civic level. He discusses the two types of collaborations: those that resolve conflict, and those that develop or advance future vision. He also explains a three-phase process to collaboration and how leadership qualities must fit in with this process in order to be successful in building a collaborative community.

Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2000). "Revisiting Inner City Strips: A Framework for Community and Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly 14(2): 165-81.

Abstract: Strip developments have historically been a resource for inner city neighborhoods, but they have seen significant decline since the 1950's with increased population mobility. Efforts to refurbish whole blocks as a group with repaired and painted exteriors, new windows and entrances usually results in increased economic activity and reductions in the presence of undesirable actors like gang members, prostitutes and criminals. Local merchant associations can be organized to implement these changes with other CBOs.

Mattessich, P. & Monsey, B. (1997). Community Building: What Makes it Work. St. Paul: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.

Abstract: The authors present a model of community building initiatives and list possible factors may make these initiatives successful.

Mayfield, L, Hellwig, M, & Banks, B. (1999). "The Chicago Response to Urban Problems- Building University-Community Collaborations." American Behavioral Scientist 42(5): 863-875.

Abstract: The authors of this case study give a history of the relationship between the community and universities in the Chicago area. They also highlight the initiatives, which have been formed since the realization was made that the two institutions needed to work together. To conclude the authors explain what lessons were learned from these types of collaborations.

McLeod, H. & Mosely, M. (1997). "The Role of Youth in Community Renewal." National Civic Review 86: 191-271.

Abstract: This article presents an overview of work done on community development and the role of youth in this.

McKnight, J. (1995). The Careless Society: Community and Its Counterfeits. New York: Basic Books.

Abstract: McKnight theorizes that the reason for weak communities is that institutions, categorized by professionalism, medicine, human services systems and the criminal justice system, seek to replace community ties with their own cold and unresponsive services. Caring involves citizens interacting with other citizens, not institutions.

Medoff, P. & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.

Abstract: This book presents a case study of the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative in Boston, were a poor neighborhood was able to affect limited, but continuing improvement.

Millward, H. (2000). "The Spread of Commuter Development in the Eastern Shore Zone of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1920-1988." Urban History Review 29(1): 21-32.

Abstract: This study uses evidence from archival and recent topographic maps to plot developing patterns of commuter-induced residential construction in the Eastern Shore sector of the Halifax commuter zone. The results may be useful for anticipation and control of future development.

Millward, H. & Bunting, T. (1999). " A Tale of Two CBDs II: The Internal Retail Dynamics of Downtown Halifax and Downtown Kitchener." Canadian Journal of Urban Research 8(1): 1-27.

Abstract: This study examines downtown structural change through an analysis of the post-World War II reorganization of CBD(central business district) retailing in contrasting medium-sized cities. The authors' map occupied and vacant retail locations in each CBD for the early 1950s and the early 1990s. The authors conclude that, in the absence of certain regional and local pre-conditions, publicly funded revitalization projects can do little to arrest downtown retail decline.

Moorer, P. & Suurmeijer, T. (2001). "The Effects of neighborhoods on Size of Social Network of the Elderly and loneliness: A Multilevel Approach" Urban Studies 38( 1): 105-118.

Abstract: The goal of the authors was to find out how much influence neighborhoods have on the size of the social network and loneliness of elderly people. It is concluded that the elderly mostly have substantially sized social networks and few feelings of loneliness. Social networks and loneliness are probably more strongly related to the psychological or social characteristics of individuals and are hardly influenced by the characteristics of neighborhoods.

Morrison, J., Howard, J., Johnson, C., Navarro, F. & Plachetka, Beth (1997). "Strengthening Neighborhoods by Developing Community Networks." Social Work 42(5): 527-34.

Abstract: This case study of a community development project in Aurora, Illinois provides a useful outline of effective community involvement. Using a series of community networks based in a local school, one neighborhood was able to reduce crime levels and increase academic performance in their community. The partnership of the school programs, parents, social workers, police and academics worked effectively in strengthening this neighborhood.

Morrissey, J. (2000). " Indicators of Citizen Participation: Lessons from Learning Teams in Rural EZ/EC Communities." Community Development Journal 35(1): 59-74.

Abstract: Indicators of citizen participation are drawn from a pilot study of participatory evaluation by Learning Teams at 10 rural sites of the Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities Program. Separating indicators of participation from project impacts is useful to gauge the level and quality of participation in the ongoing development process (process indicators), the impact of participation on self-development and community capacity (developmental indicators), and the impact of participation on policy or change (instrumental indicators). Participation indicators developed through a participatory process can help agencies and organizations assess and strengthen participation and sustain it beyond the initial planning stages of development.

Moyer, A., Coristine, M., MacLean, L., & Meyer, M. (1999). "A Model for Building Collective Capacity in Community-Based Programs: The Elderly in Need Project." Public Health Nursing 16(3): 205-214.

Abstract: This study is an example of how initiatives to improve some aspect of a community in need can have the result of building community capacity. In this example, the authors studied the community and designed an intervention to aid the community in developing its resources to be better able to care for its elderly community members.

Murray, M. (2000). " Social Capital Formation and Healthy Communities: Insights from the Colorado Healthy Communities Initiative." Community Development Journal 35(2): 99-108.

Abstract: The paper examines the construction made by the Colorado Healthy Communities Initiative to the practice of community led development.

Popple, K. & Redmond, M. (2000). " Community Development and the Voluntary Sector in the New Millennium: the Implications of the Third Way in the UK." Community Development Journal 35(4): 391-400.

Abstract: The New Labour's election in May 1997 introduced the notion of the Third Way. The volunteer sector is emerging as an influential provider of welfare services, which has given community development a funding boost. However, in this context there is a danger that community development will again be used as a tool to placate disaffected communities. This runs counter to community development's core values of acting as a liberator among the poorest in the society.

Ramsay, M. (1998). "Redeeming the City: Exploring the Relationship Between Church and Metropolis." Urban Affairs Review 33(5): 595-626.

Abstract: Ramsay argues in this article that community organization, which was formerly lead by the political left, is now being directed by religious leadership. Religion, typified by activist, civic, sanctuary or evangelistic approaches, provided the drive for continued community organizing. The factors that make it possible for religion to continue this leadership in community organization are their creeds, their institutional status, their sub cultural natures, their relief of nihilistic feelings and their endurance.

Ravenscroft N., (2000). "The Vitality and Viability of Town Centers" Urban Studies 37(13): 2533- 2549.

Abstract: Following growing concerns about the future of many town centers in the UK, this paper considers the factors that contribute to measuring and understanding their continuing health. Recognizing that past studies have tended to concentrate on measures of relative performance between towns, the paper presents a methodology for analysis at the micro level, distinguishing between both the relative and the absolute performance of different areas within individual town centers.

Roberts, C. (1999). "What Do You Mean, Teams are not Enough?" Journal for Quality & Participation 22(4): 64-65.

Abstract: In this work, Roberts applies the principles of teamwork to the community environment. He asserts that the foundations that make teamwork function well in businesses, and other organizations will also operate in communities. Roberts also discusses possible problems with this model.

Robinson, T. (1995). "Gentrification and Grassroots Resistance in San Francisco's Tenderloin." Urban Affairs Review 30(4): 483-513.

Abstract: Robinson presents a case study of the Tenderloin in San Francisco. The idea of a dual city is shown with high-rises existing with slums and service professionals residing near service dependents. San Francisco has resisted uncontrolled urban development with neighborhood sensitive planned growth that protects the integrity of urban communities.

Rutheiser, C. (1997). "Making Place in the Nonplace Urban Realm: Notes on the Revitalization of Downtown Atlanta." Urban Anthropology 26(1): 9-41.

Abstract: Atlanta, Georgia has been a leader in population growth and job creation in the United States for several decades. This article brings to light the deterioration of the inner city that has gone unnoticed in Atlanta. The hosting of the 1996 Olympic Games brought a renewed interest in the revitalization on the downtown area. The gentrification efforts in the city have only severed as a quick patch upon the deep-rooted structural problems that face urban areas.

Shaw, M. & Martin, I. (2000). " Community Work, Citizenship and Democracy: Re-Making the Connections." Community Development Journal 35(4):401-413.

Abstract: The authors think that at a time when community work seems to be so directly tied to the apron strings of the state, it is all the more important to stand back and take stock.

Shaw, R. (1999). Reclaiming America: Nike, Clean Air and the New National Activism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Abstract: Shaw describes the strengths of community based non-profit organizations as well as their weaknesses. He shows the potential grass-roots organizations have to improve society.

Smith, N., Littlejohns, L. & Thompson, D. (2001). " Shaking Out the Cobwebs: Insights Into Community Capacity and Its Relation to Health Outcomes." Community Development Journal 36(1): 30-41.

Abstract: The authors are health promotion and community development practitioners in the David Thompson Health Region of rural central Alberta. In this paper community capacity building is defined and its importance for the work of health promotion and community development practitioners is outlined. They indicated some directions for further research. Their work provide guidance on how to deliver health promotion in order to more effectively strengthen and empower communities.

Smith, N. & LeFaivre, M. (1984). "Social Differentials in Metropolitan Residential Displacement." In Palen, J. & London, B. (Eds.), Gentrification, Displacement and Neighborhood Revitalization, pp. 140-169. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Stoecker, R. (1999). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs 19(1): 1-22.

Abstract: This article criticizes CDCs for failing in many instances to effect community improvement. Stoecker suggest that communities should concentrate on developing community organizations to improve urban areas. Community controlled planning and the use of multi-local CDC accountable to the individual communities would produce better results than the traditional CDC model.

Stoutland, S. (1999). "Levels of the Community Development System: A Framework for Research and Practice." Urban Anthropology 28(2): 165-91.

Abstract: This article presents a framework for the classification of community organizations. Four levels of organizations are provided. The basic goals of the various levels are similar, but because of their different perspectives conflict may arise. Better communication and understanding among the different levels may help reduce this level of conflict.

Turner, R. (1999). "Entrepreneurial Neighborhood Initiatives: Political Capital in Community Development." Economic Development Quarterly 13(1): 15-22.

Abstract: Community based organizations will find different degrees of success depending on the amount of social and political capital they can project. Communities with high capital can expect to receive high degrees of trust from granting institutions and bureaucracies and communities with low social / political capital will receive smaller grants and can expect tighter scrutiny of their actions.

Von Hoffman, A. (1994). Local Attachments: The Making of an American Neighborhood, 1850 to 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Abstract: The author presents a historical account of the development of the Jamaica Plain neighborhood in Boston. This history can be generalized to a history of urban development.

Wagner, G.. (1995). "Gentrification, Reinvestment and Displacement in Baltimore." Journal of Urban Affairs 17(1): 81-96.

Abstract: This article shows an exception to the normal tendency for gentrification to produce displacement among minorities and the lower class. This case study of Baltimore examines four census tracks from 1980 and 90 showing the expected increases in new construction and property values with a decrease in household density. It also shows an increase in minority residence and in subsidized housing in these areas.

Wallis, A., Crocker, J.P., & Schechter, B. (1998). "Social Capital and Community Building: Part One." National Civic Review 87(3): 253-271.

Abstract: This article reviews the major theory presented by Robert Putnam in his essay, "Bowling Alone". Putnam asserts that communities are losing their social capital - that is, their networks, and norms of civic engagement. The authors explain how social capital comes in three forms: Information Sharing, Generalized reciprocity, and Norms and Values. In addition, they discuss a framework of nine factors, which can be used to develop healthy communities.

Watt, S., Higgins, C. & Kendrick, A. (2000). " Community Participation in the Development of Services: a Move Towards Community Empowerment." Community Development Journal 35(2): 120-132.

Abstract: The principal aim of this community study was to devise a model to be employed by a Council in the east of Scotland -for engaging local people in the identification and assessment of expressed need and unmet need in relation to early years services.

Weech-Maldonado, R., & Merrill, S. (2000). "Building Partnership with the Community: Lessons from the Camden Health Improvement Learning Collaborative." Journal of Healthcare Management 45(3): 189-205.

Abstract: The authors of this case study examine the Camden City Health Improvement Learning Collaborative, a community care network formed in 1993, as an example of successful community initiatives. The authors emphasize how the community can be a partner with outside practitioners in improving the overall health of the community.

Williams, B. (1985). "Owning Places and Buying Time: Class, Culture and Stalled Gentrification." Urban Life 14(3): 251-73.

Abstract: This article is based upon a participant observation analysis of a neighborhood were the gentrification process has stalled. Conflict between new owner and long-time male renters, landlords and female renters and Black and Latino renters arose as fear of displacement descended upon the community. These conflicts reflect the disparity of resources and traditions among the different groups, as well as differing visions of the groups place in the community and contrasting ways for making the neighborhood a home.

Williams, C. & Windebank, J. (2000) " Helping Each Other Out?: Community Exchange in Deprived Neighborhoods." Community Development Journal 35(2): 146-156.

Abstract: In the light of high unemployment in deprived neighborhoods, this paper considers whether community exchange is being used as a coping strategy. It finds that community exchange currently reinforces the plight of the poorest in this deprived neighborhood. This paper asserts that unless action is taken to re-build community exchange, these population will continue to be unable to satisfy their basic needs and wants.

Wilson, P. (1997). "Building Social Capital: A Learning Agenda for the Twenty-First Century." Urban Studies 34(5-6): 745-60.

Abstract: Wilson's article deals with the concept of social capital. The main goal that should be pursued in developing social capital is that of improving the individuals within the community. Understanding and learning among the different groups in a community and an emphasis on strengthening social relationships will help in this process.

Woliver, L. (1993). From Outrage to Action: The Politics of Grass-Roots Dissent. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Abstract: This book presents a description of the process of grass-roots resistance to various forms of social change.

Wyly, E. & Hammel, D. (1998). Modeling the Context and Contingency of Gentrification. Journal of Urban Affairs, 20 (3): 303-26.

Yeung, H., Wai-chung, P., Martin, J. & P. (2001). "Towards a Regional Strategy." Urban Studies, Vol. 38(1): 157-183.

Abstract: This paper presents a framework for analyzing the role of regional headquarters in the globalization strategies of transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors argue that the triadization and regionalization of TNC activities increase the demand for control and co-ordination functions previously performed by the global headquarters. Many global corporations consequently establish regional headquarters to penetrate into emerging markets and to achieve simultaneously global integration and local responsiveness.

Title Page and ContentsIntroduction | History and Timeline | Community Profile | Woodbridge Associational Map | Recommendations | Appendix A | Appendix B | Appendix C