Advancing Community Organizing Practice: Mediratta and Smith

contents | intro | background | three profiles | lessons | implications | refs/notes/apps

References, Notes, Appendices


Dalit Movements

Appavoo, James Theophilus (1986): Folklore for Change, Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary, Madurai.

Aruldoss, Rev. Dr. T (1997): Why Dalit Theology, J&D Publications, Madurai.

Fernandes, Walter (1996): The Emerging Dalit Identity: The Re-Assertion of the Subalterns, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.

Gopinath, M, ed.(1998): Nagaloka: The Fractured History and Forgotten Glory of the Bahujan Indians, Dalit Sahitya Sanghatane, Bangalore.

Guru, Gopal (1997): Dalit Cultural Movement and Dialectics of Dalit Politics in Maharashtra, Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai.

____ (1993): The Emergence of Indigenous Peoples, Collection of papers presented at the First All India Conference of Indigenous Peoples of India, Indian Social Institute, Bangalore.

Ilaiah, Kancha (1996): Why I am not a Hindu, A Sudra Critique of Hindutva Philosophy, Culture and Political Economy, Samya, Calcutta.

Jyotiraj (1994): REDS, A Decade with People, Ambedkar Resource Center, Tumkur.

Massey, James (1999): Dalits In India, Religion as a source of bondage or liberation with special reference to Christians, Manohar Publishers, New Delhi.

National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (1999): Black Paper: Broken Promises and Dalit Betrayed, Bangalore.

Nirmal, Arvind, ed. (1989): Towards A Common Dalit Ideology, Gurukul Lutheran Theological College and Research Institute, Chennai.

Omvedt, Gail (1995): Dalit Visions, Tracts for the Times, Vol.8, Orient Longman Limited, Hyderabad.

_____ (1994): Dalits and the Democratic Revolution, Dr Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Pendse, Sandeep (1994): At Cross-Roads, Dalit Movement Today, Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai.

Power, Carla: "Caste Struggle," Newsweek, July 3, 2000: 18-21.

Prasad, D. Manohar Chandra (1999): Dalit Christian Struggle, A Retrospection, Rachana Publications, Bangalore.

Raj, MC (1998): From Periphery to Center, Analysis of the Paradigm of Globalization, Casteism, Dalitism, Ambedkar Resource Center, Tumkur.

_____ (2000), Ambedkar Era, Ambedkar Resource Center, Tumkur.

Zelliot, Eleanor (1992): From Untouchable to Dalit, Essays on the Ambedkar Movement, Manohar Publishers, New Delhi.

Environmental Movements

Bhatt, Anil (1989): Development and Social Justice, micro action by weaker sections, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Cheria, Anita and K Narayan, Bijoy and Edwin (1997): A Search for Justice, A Citizens Report on the Adivasi Experience in South India, St. Pauls Publications, Bangalore.

Franke, Richard W. and Barbara H. Chasin (1989): Kerala, Radical Reform as Development in an Indian State, Institute for Food and Development Policy, CA.

Kothari, Ashish and Shekar Singh (1988): The Narmada Valley Project, A Critique, Kalpavriksh, New Delhi.

Mathew, Koshy (1988), Voice of the Storm, National Fishworkers Forum, Cochin.

Mittal, Anuradha and Peter Rosset: "Genetic Engineering and the Privatization of Seeds," Dollars and Sense, March/April 2001: 24-27.

National Fishworkers Forum (1997): Dossier, World Forum of Fish Harvesters & Fishworkers.

Roy, Arundhati (1999): The Cost of Living, Modern Library, New York.

Sangvai, Sanjay (2000): The River and Life, People's Struggle in the Narmada Valley, Earthcare Books, Mumbai and Calcutta.

Gandhian Organizing

Bakshi, Rajni, (1998): Bapu Kuti, Journeys in Rediscovery of Gandhi, Penquin, New Delhi.

Bondurant, Joan V. (1958): Conquest of Violence, The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Dalton, Dennis (1993): Mahatma Gandhi, Non Violent Power in Action, Columbia University Press, New York.

Gandhi, MK (1927): An Autobiography OR The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Navajivan Trust, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Mathur, Dr. J.S. (1977), Non Violence and Social Change, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad.

Narayan, Shriman (1969): The Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, An Autobiography, Navajivan Trust, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Parel, Anthony (1997): Hind Swaraj, Foundation Books, New Delhi.

Randolph, Susanna Hoeber and Lloyd I. Rudolph (1967): Gandhi, The Traditional Roots of Charisma, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Marxism and Organizing

Chaudhary, Shalini (ND): "In the Path of Development," People's Action, New Delhi.

Datt, Ruddar, ed. (1997): Organizing the Unorganized Workers, Indian Society of Labour Economics, Delhi.

Singh, Prakash (1995): The Naxalite Movement In India, Rupa & Co, New Delhi.

Young India Project (1988): Papers On Development and Rural Poverty, Andhra Pradesh.

_____ (1988): Tryst with Destiny, Critical Essays on Government Development Policies and Anti-Poverty Programmes, Andhra Pradesh.

____ (2000): Annual Report, Andhra Pradesh.

Women's Movements

Carr, Marilyn, Chen, Martha and Renana Jhabvala (1996): Speaking Out: Women's Economic Empowerment in South Asia, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.

Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee (1984): Silver Shackles: Women and Development in India, Oxfam, Oxford.

Nussbaum, Martha C. (2000): Women and Development, The Capabilities Approach, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

Rose, Kalima (1992): Where Women Are Leaders, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.

SEWA (1988), Annual Report, Ahmedabad.

____ (1999), Annual Report, Ahmedabad.

Virmani, Shabnam, When Women Unite: The Story of an Uprising (NY: Media for International Development, 1996)

Critical analyses of Indian social movements

Bonner, Arthur (1990): Averting the Apocalypse, Social Movements in India, Duke University Press, North Carolina.

Chakraborty, Somen (1999): A Critique of Social Movements in India, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.

Chaube, Shibani Kinkar and Bidyut Chakrabarty, eds. (1999): Social Movements in Contemporary India, KP Bagchi & Company, Calcutta.

Desrochers, John csc and Bastiaan Wielenga and Vibhuti Patel (1991): Social Movements, Towards a Perspective, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

Omvedt, Gail (1993): Reinventing Revolution: New Social Movements and the Socialist Tradition in India, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., New York.

Oommen, TK (1990): Protest and Change, Studies in Social Movements, Sage, New Delhi.

Routledge, Paul (1993): Terrains of Resistance, Nonviolent Social Movements and the Contestation of Place in India Praeger Publishers, CT.

Shah, Ghanshyam (1990): Social Movements In India, A Review of the Literature, Sage: New Delhi.

Social Movements, "Caste and Gender," Vikalp Alternatives, Vol. VIII/No.: 1 & 2- 2000. Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai

Wignaraja, Ponna, ed. (1993): New Social Movements in the South, Empowering the People, Sage Publications , New Delhi.

Cultural and societal analysis

Bharucha, Rustom (2000): Enigmas of Time: Reflections on Culture, History and Politics, Visthar, Bangalore.

Dietrich, Gabriele (1991): Culture, Religion and Development, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

_____ and Bas Wielenga (1997): Towards Understanding Indian Society, Center for Social Analysis, Madurai.

Desrochers, John: Methods of Societal Analysis, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

____ and George Joseph (1993): India Today, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

Kappen, S. (1994): Tradition, Modernity, Counter Culture, Visthar, Bangalore.

Joseph, George (1998): Social Action Groups and their Activists, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

Maliekal, John (1993): Indian Political Parties and their Ideologies, Center for Social Action, Bangalore.

Thapar, Romila (1999): Historical Interpretations and the Secularizing of Indian Society, Visthar, Bangalore.

Critical analyses of modern Indian politics and socioeconomic conditions

Iyer, Justice V.R. Krishna, Pandit, C.S., Kappen, S., and Hasan Mansur (1991): Challenges Facing Indian Democracy, Visthar, Bangalore.

Kothari, Rajni (1970): Politics in India, Orient Longman, Hyderabad

Kohli, Atul, ed. (1988): India's Democracy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.,

Kurien, CT (1994): Global Capitalism and the Indian Economy, Orient Longman, Hyderabad.

Narayan, Jayaprakash (1992): Total Revolution, Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Varanasi

_____ (1977), Prison Diary, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.

Nayar, Kuldip (1975): Writings on the Emergency in India.

UNDP (2000): Human Development Report 2000, Oxford.

Viswanath, Rosemary, ed (1998): Globalization: Marginalization of Dalits, Women and Tribals, Solidarity, Tumkur.

NGOs and Voluntary Organizations

Culshaw, Murray, compiled (1998): Profile 300: Selected Voluntary Organizations in India, First Ed., Center for Advancement of Philanthropy.

James, PJ (1995): Non-Governmental Voluntary Organizations, The True Mission, Mass Line Publications, Kerala

Community organizing in the U.S.

Alinsky, Saul (1989): Rules for Radicals, Vintage Books, New York.

Barber, Benjamin (1994): Strong Democracy, Participatory Politics for a New Age, University of California Press, CA.

Boyte, Harry C. and Frank Reissman (1986): The New Populism, The Politics of Empowerment, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

California Tomorrow (2001): "Community Organizing for School Reform Research Initiative: Site Reports from LA and the San Francisco Bay Area," Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York.

Delgado, Gary (1986): Organizing the Movement: the Roots and Growth of ACORN Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

_______(ND): Beyond the Politics of Place: New Directions in Community Organizing in the 1990s, Applied Research Center, Oakland.

Fellner, Kim (Spring 2000): ARK, National Organizers Alliance, Washington DC.

Fisher, Robert (1994): Let the People Decide, Neighborhood Organizing in America Twayne Publishers, NY.

Gaventa, John, Smith, Barbara Ellen, and Alex Willingham (1990): Communities in Economic Crises, Appalachia and the South, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Kling, Joseph M. and Prudence Posner, (1990): Dilemmas of Activism: Class, Community, and the Politics of Local Mobilization, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Mediratta, Kavitha (1995): Community-building Approaches, A survey of strategies and an agenda for future work, Rockefeller Foundation, NY.

Rooney, Jim (1995): Organizing the South Bronx, State University of New York Press, Albany.


1. We spent from two days to six weeks with each group interviewing staff and members, observing key meetings and public events, and reviewing documents. We also interviewed researchers and other observers of Indian social movements. See Appendix B for a full description of our research methodology.

2.. See, for example, Gary Delgado, Organizing the Movement: the Roots and Growth of ACORN (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986); Jim Rooney, Organizing the South Bronx (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995); and Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals (New York: Vintage Books, 1989).

3. Fisher, Robert, Let the People Decide, Neighborhood Organizing in America (NY: Twayne Publishers, 1994); Boyte, Harry C. and Frank Reissman, The New Populism, The Politics of Empowerment (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986); Barber, Benjamin, Strong Democracy, Participatory Politics for a New Age, (CA: University of California Press, 1984.); and Gaventa, John, Smith, Barbara Ellen, and Alex Willingham, Communities in Economic Crises, Appalachia and the South (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.)

4.Delgado, Gary, Beyond the Politics of Place: New Directions in Community Organizing in the 1990s (Oakland: Applied Research Center); Fisher, ibid.; Kling, Joseph M. and Prudence Posner, Dilemmas of Activism: Class, Community, and the Politics of Local Mobilization (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990); Mediratta, Kavitha, Community-building Approaches, A survey of strategies and an agenda for future work. (NY: Rockefeller Foundation, 1995).

5. Omvedt, Gail, Reinventing Revolution, New Social Movements and the Socialist Tradition in India (NY: ME Sharp, 1993).

6. Singh, Prakash (1995): The Naxalite Movement in India, Rupa & Co., New Delhi. Also Kuldip Nayar (1975, Emergency in India. Also Narayan, Jayaprakash (1992), Total Revolution and (1977) Prison Diairies.

7. Interview with Dr. K. C. Abraham, SATHRI, Bangalore, July 2000.

8. This political context posed considerable challenges for data collection in this project. As one organizer explained, social justice organizing groups feared giving the impression of receiving foreign funding by taking our Caucasian researcher out to their local sites. Almost all of the groups we visited receive some financial and organizational support from foreign individuals and organizations, and thus were reluctant to expose themselves to potential harassment from local and central government officials.

9.  Oommen, TK, Protest and Change, Studies in Social Movements (New Delhi: Sage, 1990); Routledge, Paul, Terrains of Resistance, Nonviolent Social Movements and the Contestation of Place in India (CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993); and Wignaraja, Ponna, New Social Movements in the South, Empowering the People (New Delhi: Sage, 1993)

10. Shah, Ghanshyam, Social Movements In India, A Review of the Literature (New Delhi: Sage, 1990); Virmani, Shabnam, When Women Unite: The Story of an Uprising (NY: Media for International Development, 1996)

11. We selected these organizations because they are similar enough to community organizing groups in the US to allow for comparative analysis, but different enough that the comparison would generate new insights and strategies. A fuller description of the site selection process is included in Appendix C.

12. SEWA in 1988: 6

13.  SEWA in 1988: 14

14.SEWA in 1988: 3-4.

15. SEWA, Building Capacities for Leadership and Self Reliance, 2000: 2.

16.Parel: li-liii

17. Autobiography: X.

18.Parel: xxxv.

19.CW 8: 173, cited in Parel, xxxv

20.Gandhi, SW. vol. IV, p. 335

21.Jai Bhim is an expression developed by REDS that means 'Victory to Ambedkar.' It is now used widely as a greeting among Dalits in South India.

22. As cited in Zelliot, Eleanor (1992): From Untouchable to Dalit, Essays on the Ambedkar Movement, Manohar Publishers, New Delhi.

23. YIP: 7

24. Omvedt, Gail, Reinventing Revolution: 254

25.SEWA in 1988: 14

26. Ibid: 15

Appendix A: Glossary of Key Terms, Concepts and People

Adivasi - Indigenous or tribal people. They often live in sparsely settled rural areas, and have traditionally lived by hunting, gathering, and farming.

Ambedkar, Dr. B.R. - Leader of the Dalit movement against the Indian caste system during the early part of the 20th century. He wrote the Indian constitution and was instrumental in creating the Indian system of reservations (quotas) for Dalits and other marginalized groups in education, employment and government. He used direct, mass action and electoral organizing strategies to build Dalit movement.

Caste system - Social structure in India established in the Hindu religion. The caste system divides people into four broad castes based on birth and occupation. These are Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras, which are meant to correspond to the functions of intellectuals, warriors, merchants and laborers. Below these four castes are "untouchables" or Dalits who are supposed to do "unclean" work such as cleaning sewers, collecting garbage, and disposing of dead animals.

Dalit - Indians formerly known as "untouchables" in the Indian caste system. They have been called untouchables because caste Hindus have traditionally considered them so dirty that even touching one will pollute them. Many now call themselves Dalits, a more political term meaning downtrodden and oppressed people. Their goal is to build a positive sense of identity in their communities, and to eliminate caste oppression. Many Dalits have been influenced by the struggle of African Americans in the U.S.. The Dalit Panthers is one of the most well known Dalit groups.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. (Mahatma) - Leader in India's independence movement against England in the early part of the 20th century. He built a mass movement based in the organizing technique he called satyagraha, which emphasizes truth and non-violence.

Ideology - In a narrow sense, a set of values to guide one's work. In a broader sense, a belief system that articulates 1) an analysis of society, 2) guiding values and vision for a different society, and 3) a means and method for creating that society.

Non-government organization (NGO) - Community-based organizations that are formally registered with the government. They have professional staff and are funded through foreign and Indian foundations or government programs. Most NGOs are engaged in development and service activities, although some do organizing.

People's organizations and movements - Community-based organizations that are not registered with the government, are membership-based, and have a struggle orientation. Most have neither formal funding nor paid staff.

Untouchability - Set of social practices which separate Dalits from caste Hindus.

Appendix B: Gandhian Guidelines for Satyagraha

(From Joan V. Bondurant, Conquest of Violence: the Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict.

Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1958, p. 38 - 41)

Satyagraha means firmness in truth, and is Gandhi's non-violent form of social and political action. A satyagrahi is a practitioner of satyagraha.

I. Fundamental rules:

  1. Maintain self-reliance at all times - don't count on outside aid.
  2. Maintain initiative in the hands of the Satyagrahis. "Through continuous assessment of the conflict situation satyagrahis should, by means of constructive program where possible, by positive resistance where indicated, or by tactics of persuasion and adjustment, press the movement forward."
  3. Clearly propagate the objectives, strategy, and tactics of the campaign. Educate the opponent, the public, and your own participants.
  4. Reduce demands to the minimum that is consistent with truth. Always assess and consider adjusting demands.
  5. Advance the movement progressively through steps and stages. Avoid a static condition, but launch direct action only when efforts to achieve an honorable settlement have been exhausted.
  6. Examine weaknesses within the group - especially regarding morale and discipline.
  7. Persistently search for avenues of cooperation with the adversary on honorable terms. Win over the opponent by helping him, thereby demonstrating sincerity to achieve an agreement with, rather than a triumph over, the adversary.
  8. Refuse to surrender essentials in negotiation. Make no compromise which affects basic principles or essential portions of valid objectives. Avoid bargaining or barter.
  9. Insist upon full agreement on fundamentals before accepting a settlement.

II. Code of Discipline (laid down by Gandhi as a code for volunteers in the 1930 movement)

  1. Harbor no anger but suffer the anger of the opponent. Refuse to return the assaults of the opponent.
  2. Do not submit to any order given in anger, even though severe punishment is threatened for disobeying.
  3. Refrain from insults and swearing.
  4. Protect opponents from insult or attack, even at the risk of life.
  5. Do not resist arrest nor the attachment of property, unless holding property as a trustee.
  6. Refuse to surrender any property held in trust at the risk of life.
  7. If taken prisoner, behave in an exemplary manner.
  8. As a member of a satyagraha unit, obey the orders of satyagraha leaders, and resign from the unit in the event of serious disagreement.
  9. Do not expect guarantees for maintenance of dependants.

III. Steps in a Satyagraha campaign

  1. Start with negotiation and arbitration. Make every effort to resolve conflict through existing channels
  2. Prepare the group for direct action by examining motives and initiating exercises in self-discipline. Launch full group discussions on the issues at stake, appropriate procedures to be undertaken, circumstances of the opponent, the climate of public opinion, etc. At times use purificatory fasting.
  3. Use agitation and undertake an active propaganda campaign together with demonstrations such as mass-meetings, parades, and slogan shouting.
  4. Issue an ultimatum which makes a final strong appeal to the opponent explaining what further steps will be taken if no agreement is reached. Its wording should offer the widest scope for agreement, allowing for face-saving by opponent, and should offer a constructive solution to problem.
  5. Undertake economic boycott and forms of strike, possibly including picketing, demonstrations, education of the public, dharna (sit-down strike), non-violent labor strike, and general strike.
  6. Use non-cooperation, possibly including non-payment of taxes, boycott of schools and other public institutions, etc.
  7. Undertake civil disobedience including contravention of laws that are central to the grievance or symbolic.
  8. Usurp the functions of government.
  9. Institute a parallel government

Appendix C: Research Process

Between October 1999 and October 2000, we visited a total of twenty organizing groups and support organizations. These visits ranged in duration from two days to six weeks. We also interviewed a number of academic and critical observers of Indian social movements.

We used a collaborative inquiry methodology in conducting visits and interviews to encourage ongoing dialogue between our research team and our organizer peers in the U.S. and India. This research methodology involved two main cycles of problem identification, data collection and analysis.

First, we convened a peer group of organizers in the U.S. to discuss and refine our assessment of the theoretical frameworks driving U.S. organizing work and the key challenges facing community organizing today. While in India, we reported to our peer groups, via email, on our preliminary observations, thoughts and questions regarding the work of Indian organizing groups. Upon returning to the U.S., we re-convened this group to present our findings and discuss their implications for organizing in the U.S.. (Peer group members are listed in Appendix E).

Second, where possible, we provided organizations with "snapshots" of their work for their review and comment to ensure the accuracy of our analysis and engage our Indian organizing colleagues in a discussion about effective organizing practice. This consisted largely of written reports documenting events or campaigns that drew upon our interviews with their leaders, staff and members, as well as on our observations of their meetings, training sessions and public actions. This sharing of observations was conducted more informally on shorter visits.

In addition, we interviewed outside observers and researchers to gather additional evidence of the effectiveness of these groups' work and to learn about external challenges facing the work of these groups. We also conducted an extensive literature review to understand the contextual factors that might contribute to differences in approach and practice between Indian and U.S. groups.

Site Selection

We selected Indian organizing groups that are similar enough to the U.S. groups and networks to allow for comparative analysis, but different enough so that the comparison generates new insights and strategies. This led us to focus largely on people's organizations that have some formal structure or are linked to NGOs. Our selection of groups were based on three sets of criteria:

Our focus was to work with groups whose members are poor, of lower castes and classes, or are discriminated against due to their gender, ethnicity, or other factors. As women comprise the majority of the members of the groups we have worked with in the U.S., we had an additional interest in examining the work of Indian groups whose members are mainly women. These considerations directed us to groups that work with a segment of the overall population that is demographically similar to the membership of U.S. organizing groups.

Sites were selected through a comprehensive and iterative process of identifying organizations and gathering information about their activities that would allow us to assess whether they were currently engaged in grassroots organizing campaigns. This process involved reviewing reports, research and other publications about grassroots activity across India and interviewing support organizations, academics and other critical observers of organizing to develop an initial list of over 100 organizations that might be appropriate for the study. We then wrote these groups to request information on their goals and activities. Using the information gathered in this initial survey, we identified a smaller subset of groups that were potential candidates. We visited each of these groups to discuss the research project and assess whether the group would interested in participating. We finalized the sites for this study based on information gathered in our preliminary visits.

The organizations discussed in this paper include:

A complete list of organizing groups and support organizations visited is provided in Appendix D.

Research Questions

Our initial research questions focused on a number of critical challenges facing organizing in the U.S., including: increasing participation and developing leadership; developing a values framework for organizing; and leveraging limited resources to maximize impact on public policy. This research agenda developed out of our work with community organizations, our dialogue with a range of U.S. community organizers and leaders about the critical challenges facing organizing practice today, and our preliminary research on community organizing in India. We later refined our initial questions to include "supporting organizing and building movements" in response to feedback from our peer group and our initial observations of organizing taking place in India.

Specifically, we examined:

  1. How do organizations build a strong membership base? How do they bring in new members? How are members involved in defining and carrying out the organizing work? How do these groups develop members as leaders? How has their participation changed the way members view their own roles in society and their ability to be effective actors in public life?
  3. What is the role of values, ideology and culture in organizing? Do individual groups operate within explicit value frameworks based in ideology, culture or religion? What roles do culture and religious tradition play in building group cohesion and defining organizing strategy? How are these frameworks developed, and do they increase cohesion among members? How are new members assisted in connecting specific local campaigns with longer-term vision and goals?
  5. How do groups leverage their limited resources to affect broader change, and contribute to building broader social movements? How do groups expand their reach beyond local, issue-based organizing to achieve system-wide policy reform? What approaches and tactics have they developed for leveraging their limited financial and human resources? What relationships do these groups have to political parties or individual elected officials, and to local or regional religious leaders? Do groups work within broader networks or coalitions? How do these networks emerge, and how is decision-making structured? What factors influence the effectiveness of these coalitions?

In addressing these questions, we also attempted to identify the contextual factors that contribute to differences in approach and practice between Indian and U.S. groups. We sought to understand how differences in the outcomes attained by Indian organizing groups might relate to differences in how they develop and use culture, ideology and value frameworks as organizing tools, and whether these differences might suggest new strategies for U.S. groups.

Data Analysis (and dissemination of findings)

Data analysis included a series of presentations and discussions with our organizer peer group and other organizing colleagues in New York City. These presentations and discussions provided the opportunity to test our hypotheses of organizing challenges faced by U.S. groups and fine-tune our analysis of relevant lessons from the work of Indian groups.

Appendix D: Organizations and individuals contacted and visited

1. Grassroots Organizations

Andhra Pradesh
Young India Project and its member unions
Andhra Pradesh Vyvasaya Vrithidarula Union
Self-Employed Women's Association
Narmada Bachao Andolan
Rural Education and Development Society/Dalit Jagruti Samiti
Womens Voice
Coorg Organization for Community Development
National Fishworkers Forum
Girni Kamgar Sangarsh Samiti
New Delhi
National Alliance of Peoples Movements
Tamil Nadu
Rural Education and Action for Development
Action for Community Organization, Rehabilitation and Development
Dalit Resource Center (Dalit Liberation Movement)
Institute for Social Education and Development
Tamil Nadu Agricultural Laborers Movement

2. Support Organizations and Individuals

Unnati (Organization for Development Education)
Campaign for Dalit Human Rights
Father Aloysius, Indian Social Institute
David Selvaraj, Visthar
Program for Community Organization
PK Das, architect
Nayan Momaya
New Delhi
Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA)
Tamil Nadu
Center for Social Analysis, Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary

3. Researchers and other observers of organizing

New Delhi
Ghanshyam Shah, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Smitu Kothari, Lokayan
Karen McGuinness
Karnataka (Bangalore)
Dr. K.C. Abraham, Southeast Asia Theological Research Institute (SATHRI)
Philip George, Partners for Justice Concerned
EP Menon
Tamil Nadu
Philip Joseph, Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary

Appendix E: Organizer Peer Group members

Joan Byron
Senior Architect
Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development
Mary Dailey
Executive Director
Northwest Bronx Community and Clergy Coalition
Munir Hakim
South Brooklyn Community Development Corporation
Lois Harr
Board Member
Northwest Bronx Community and Clergy Coalition
Greg Holt
Vice President
SEIU Local 1199
Helen Schaub 
Executive Director 
Mothers On the Move 
Eric Zachary 
Senior Project Director 
Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York University

contents | intro | background | three profiles | lessons | implications | refs/notes/apps