Contents | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | References & Notes


Alliance for Justice. 1999. "Worry-Free Lobbying for Nonprofits: How to use the 501(h) Election to Maximize Effectiveness." Washington, DC: Alliance for Justice.

Arons, David F. 1999. "Nonprofit Management and Advocacy: Examining Barriers to Democracy." Paper presented at the Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Washington, DC, November 4-6.

Bratt, Rachel G. 1989. Rebuilding a Low-Income Housing Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Briggs, Xavier de Souza and Elizabeth J. Mueller. 1997. From Neighborhood to Community: Evidence on the Social Effects of Community Development. New York: Community Development Research Center, Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, New School for Social Research.

Clarke, Susan E. 1998. Remarks given during the colloquy "The Political Role of Nonprofits in Urban Politics" at the Meeting of the Urban Affairs Association, Fort Worth. Cassette in author's possession.

Clarke, Susan E., Lynn Staeheli, and Laura Brunell. 1995. "Women Redefining Local Politics." In Theories of Urban Politics, edited by David Judge, Gerry Stoker, and Harold Wolman. London: Sage.

Clavel, Pierre and Wim Wiewel (eds.). 1991. Harold Washington and the Neighborhoods: Progressive City Government in Chicago, 1983-1987. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Clavel, Pierre, Jessica Pitt, and Jordan Yin. 1997. "The Community Option in Urban Policy." Urban Affairs Review 32:435-458.

Clemetson, Robert and Roger Coates (eds.). 1992. Restoring Broken Places and Rebuilding Communities: A Casebook on African-American Church Involvement in Community Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: National Congress for Community Economic Development.

Cowan, Spencer M., William Rohe, and Esmail Baku. 1999. "Factors Influencing the Performance of Community Development Corporations." Journal of Urban Affairs 21:325-340.

Dreier, Peter. 1996. "Community Empowerment Strategies: The Limits and Potential of Community Organizing in Urban Neighborhoods." Cityscape 2 (May):121-159.

__________. 1999. "Comment." In Urban Problems and Community Development, edited by Ronald F. Ferguson and William T. Dickens. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Fainstein, Norman I. and Susan S. Fainstein. 1976. "The Future of Community Control." American Political Science Review 70:905-23.

Ferman, Barbara. 1996. Challenging the Growth Machine: Neighborhood Politics in Chicago and Pittsburgh. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Gilliam, Reginald Earl. 1975. Black Political Development: An Advocacy Analysis. Port Washington, NY: Dunellen Publishing.

Gittell, Marilyn. 1980. Limits to Citizen Participation: The Decline of Community Organizations. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Gittell, Marilyn, Kathe Newman, Janice Bockmeyer, and Robert Lindsay. 1998. "Expanding Civic Opportunity: Urban Empowerment Zones." Urban Affairs Review 33:530-558.

Gittell, Ross J. and Margaret Wilder. 1999. "Community Development Corporations: Critical Factors that Influence Success." Journal of Urban Affairs 21:341-362.

Gittell, Ross J. and Avis Vidal. 1998. Community Organizing: Building Social Capital As a Development Strategy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Glickman, Norm and Lisa Servon. 1998. "More Than Bricks and Sticks: Five Components of Community Development Corporation Capacity." Housing Policy Debate 9:497-540.

Goetz, Edward. 1993. Shelter Burden: Local Politics and Progressive Housing Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Green, Charles and Basil Wilson. 1992. The Struggle for Black Empowerment in New York City: Beyond the Politics of Pigmentation. New York: McGraw Hill.

Herbst, Susan. 1994. Politics at the Margin: Historical Studies of Public Expression Outside the Mainstream. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Howard, Christopher, Michael Lipsky, and Dale Rogers Marshall. 1994. "Citizen Participation in Urban Politics: Rise and Routinization." In Big City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal Constraints, ed. George E. Peterson. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.

Hula, Richard, Cynthia Jackson, and Marion Orr. 1997. "Urban Politics, Governing Nonprofits, and Community Revitalization." Urban Affairs Review 32:459-489.

Imbroscio, David L. 1997. Reconstructing City Politics: Alternative Economic Development and Urban Regimes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Jennings, James. 1992. The Politics of Black Empowerment: The Transformation of Black Activism in Urban America. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Judd, Dennis R. and Todd Swanstrom. 1998. City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Longman.

Keating, Dennis W., Norman Krumholz, and John Metzger. 1995. "Postpopulist Public-Private Partnerships." In Cleveland: A Metropolitan Reader, edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and David C. Perry. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.

Koschinsky, Julia and Todd Swanstrom. 1999. "Community Development and Equality: The Political Construction of Policy Subregimes." Paper presented at the Meeting of the Urban Affairs Association, Louisville, Kentucky, April 15-17.

Mares, Alvin S. 1994. "Housing and the Church." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 23:139-157.

McDougall, Harold A. 1993. Black Baltimore: A New Theory of Community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar. 1994. Streets of Hope. The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood. Boston: South End Press.

Metzger, John T. 1998. "Remaking the Growth Coalition: The Pittsburgh Partnership for Neighborhood Development." Economic Development Quarterly 21:12-29.

Mier, Robert. 1993. Social Justice and Local Economic Development Policy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mollenkopf, John Hull. 1986. "New York: The Great Anomaly." PS 19:591-597.

__________. 1994. A Phoenix in the Ashes: The Rise and Fall of the Koch Coalition in New York City Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

__________. 1995. "New York: The Great Anomaly." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.

National Congress for Community Economic Development. 1999. Community-Based Development Organizations. Washington, DC: National Congress for Community Economic Development.

Nonprofit Coordinating Committee of New York. 1998. "Advocacy without Fear." New York: Nonprofit Coordinating Committee of New York.

Owens, Michael Leo. 1997a. "Local Party Failure and Alternative, Black Church-based Nonparty Organizations." Western Journal of Black Studies 21:162-172.

__________. 1997b. "Renewal in a Working-Class Black Neighborhood." Journal of Urban Affairs 19:183-206.

__________. 1998. "Black Church-Based Community Development Corporations and Urban Housing Policy: A Re-Consideration of Black Representation and Incorporation in Cities." Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, September 3-6.

__________. 1999. "The Political Potential of Black Church-Affiliated Community Development Organizations." Paper presented at the Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Washington, DC, November 4-6.

__________. In Press. Black Church-Affiliated Community Development Corporations and the Coproduction of Affordable Housing in New York City. In Emerging Roles for Nonprofits, edited by Richard Hula and Cynthia Jackson-Elmoore. New York, NY: Quorum Press.

__________. Forthcoming. Pulpits and Policy: The Politics of Black Church-Based Community Development in New York City. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Albany.

Reid, Elizabeth J. 1999. "Nonprofit Advocacy and Political Participation." In Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict, edited by Elizabeth T. Boris and C. Eugene Steuerle. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.

Saidel, Judith R. 1993. "The Board Role in Relation to Government: Alternative Models." In Governing, Leading and Managing Nonprofit Organizations, edited by Dennis Young, Robert M. Hollister, and Virginia Hodgkinson. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Stoecker, Randy. 1994. Defending Community: The Struggle for Alternative Redevelopment in Cedar-Riverside. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Stoecker, Randy. 1997. "The CDC Model of Urban Development: A Critique and Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs 19:1-22.

Stoutland, Sara E. 1999. "Community Development Corporations: Mission, Strategy, and Accomplishments." In Urban Problems and Community Development, edited by Ronald F. Ferguson and William T. Dickens. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Sullivan, Mercer. 1993. More Than Housing: How Community Development Corporations Go About Changing Lives and Neighborhoods. New York: Community Development Research Center, New School for Social Research.

Swanstrom, Todd. 1999. "The Nonprofitization of United States Housing Policy: Dilemmas of Community Development." Community Development Journal 34:28-37.

Taub, Richard P. 1990. Nuance and Meaning in Community Development: Finding Community and Development. New York: Community Development Research Center, Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, New School for Social Research.

Thomas, June Manning and Reynard N. Blake, Jr. 1996. "Faith-based Community Development and African-American Neighborhoods." In Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods, edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star. Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas.

Twelvetrees, Alan. 1989. Organizing for Neighborhood Development. Brookfield, VT: Averbury.

Verba, Sidney and Norman Nie. 1972. Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper & Row.

Vidal, Avis C. 1992. Rebuilding Communities: A National Study of Urban Community Development Corporations. New York: Community Development Research Center, New School for Social Research.

__________. 1995. "Reintegrating Disadvantaged Communities into the Fabric of Urban Life: The Role of Community Development." Housing Policy Debate 6:169-230.

__________. 1996. "CDCs as Agents of Neighborhood Change: The State of the Art." In Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods, edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star. Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas.

Weir, Margaret. 1999. "Power, Money, and Politics in Community Development." In Urban Problems and Community Development, edited by Ronald F. Ferguson and William T. Dickens. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Weiss, Marc A. and John T. Metzger. 1989. "Planning for Chicago: The Changing Politics of Metropolitan Growth and Neighborhood Development." In Atop the Urban Hierarchy, edited by Robert Beauregard. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

Wilson, Basil and Charles Green. 1988. "The Black Church and the Struggle for Political Empowerment in New York City." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, (January): 51-79.


1 The National Congress for Community and Economic Development (NCCED) monitors the growth of CDCs in the United States. Its most recent census of CDCs suggests that the population is approximately 3,600. Of this number, 52 percent service urban areas and 26 percent serve rural areas. The remainder (22 percent) service mixed urban-rural areas (NCCED 1999, 5). (back to text)

2 Historically black religious denominations are administratively independent of predominantly white denominations. There are eight denominations: African Methodist Episcopal; African Methodist Episcopal Zion; Christian Methodist Episcopal; National Baptist Convention of America, Inc.; National Missionary Baptist Convention of America; National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.; Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc.; and Church of God in Christ. CDCs affiliated with a church or coalitions of churches that belong to white-led denominations such as Roman Catholic, Episcopal, or Presbyterian are not black church-associated CDCs. (back to text)

3 Afforded nonprofit tax status, black church-associated CDCs may receive tax-deductible contributions; there is no federal gift tax on contributions to them. (back to text)

4 No national statistics exist on the number of black church-associated CDCs operating in American cities. As I have remarked elsewhere (Owens 1998, 1999), researchers can expect the number will increase. Five factors will be the cause. One, commercial financial institutions such as Chase Manhattan Bank and Fleet Bank are heavily invested in faith-associated lending, both for sanctuary construction and community-based development projects. Two, technical assistance providers like the Faith Center for Community Development, Inc. and the National Congress for Community Economic Development are experiencing a growth in the number of black churches seeking them out to incorporate CDCs. Three, national philanthropies like the Ford Foundation, as well as community foundations, are increasing their financial commitments black church-associated community development. Four, courses on faith-associated community development are becoming standard at universities, colleges, and seminaries like Harvard University, Michigan State University, New Hampshire College, New School for Social Research, University of Michigan, Yale University, Union Theological Seminary, and Princeton Theological Seminary. Five, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development established a Center for Community and Interfaith Partnerships that promotes faith-based community development via public resources. (back to text)

5 The ten churches are Abyssinian Baptist Church; Allen African Methodist Episcopal Church; Bethany Baptist Church; Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church; Bridge Street African Methodist Episcopal Church; Canaan Baptist Church of Christ; Concord Baptist Church of Christ; Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church; Memorial Baptist Church; and Saint Paul Community Baptist Church. (back to text)

6 Nearly all of the research on the CDC examines it with closed eyes toward politics. It tends to look at CDCs solely through the lenses of physical changes and economic outputs. For example, researchers focus on the number of housing units built and the number of jobs created or retained in a community (Vidal 1992). Some address the efficiency and effectiveness of the CDC as a vehicle for delivering community services (Cowan, Rohe, and Baku 1999). Others seek out its social effects on individuals and neighborhoods (Sullivan 1993). Many focus on the technical difficulties CDCs experience in their physical and economic activities (Bratt 1989; Clay 1990). (back to text)

7 Mercer Sullivan (1993, 104) notes that CDCs may be equally likely to have full-time community organizers, as they do full-time housing developers and social workers. This is the case with Boston's Urban Edge Corporation, whose staff includes full-time organizers that, not only organize the tenants of the CDC's housing, but also practice community-wide organizing (Briggs and Mueller 1997). (back to text)

8 The New York State legislature created the Neighborhood Preservation Development Companies program in 1977. Its purpose is to preserve and build low- and moderate-income housing throughout New York State. It pursues this purpose by providing planning and administrative funds to community-based nonprofit housing corporations. (back to text)

9 The use of public dollars (along with other government resources) black church-associated CDCs may surprise some. The rhetoric of black church-led community development is conservative in tone, expressing the notion that urban black church-associated CDCs can and do compete against government. A sober review of black church-associated community development, especially the political philosophy behind its organizations, along with its sources of governmental funding, belies its conservative nature. Despite what conservative commentators (e.g., Woodson 1998) may think or say about them, black church-associated CDCs are more progressive in character and action than not. Black churches do not intend their affiliated CDCs to replace urban municipal government as the provider of public goods in urban black neighborhoods. Even if they did, the financial barrier is too high for black church-associated CDCs to overcome. A director of a Harlem-based CDC clarifies:

Our success gives or allows some public agencies to think that, 'O.K. then they can do more.' But, ours is never to replace government . . . As much as we are seen as a model and a leading [CDC] we are barely surviving and that is just the operational costs. The needs and demands of a faith-based development corporation are, maybe not greater [than a secular one], but its something that -- the resources to support it are not equal to the demand and the level of services that are required by the people in the neighborhoods we serve. (back to text)

10 The HOME and CDBG programs provide flexible grants from the federal government to state and local governments for housing construction and rehabilitation. HOME mandates that municipalities allocate a minimum of 15 percent of their HOME funds to housing developed, sponsored, or owned by nonprofit housing organizations such as black church-associated CDCs. Both CDBG and HOME give wide discretion to local governments in formulating their responses to housing problems. (back to text)

11 The LIHTC program gives private investors who provide equity capital for new construction or the cost of substantially rehabilitated affordable housing units an annual federal income tax credit of 9 percent for ten years. Tax credits solely go toward the proportion of units occupied by low-income households, as defined by the federal government. (back to text)

12 Funding for the organizers comes from external grants. The case of a Harlem-based black church-associated CDC: "We got a Community Trusts grant, from the New York Community Trust, to look at the impact and mobilize the people who are our residents to be able to deal with and get information sharing, education about welfare-to-work, and what their responses are to it." The same CDC also received a grant from the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation. (back to text)

Contents | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | References & Notes